When the persons supervising behind traffic, decided to transfer burdens of replenishment of the family budget to the persons participating in traffic, with an accuracy it is impossible to tell. However it is obvious that there was it how as a part of domestic law enforcement agencies there were services of supervision over implementation of the established rules of a driving of horse and self-moving crews.
"Obtaining permissions lasts endlessly"
In the second half of the XIX century supervision of observance of the traffic regulation in the cities was assigned to policemen, and in 1890-x years when obligatory registration of crews was entered, it made in usual police stations in a residence of owners of animal-drawn vehicles. Rules thus existing in the Russian Empire allocated guards with so large powers what not to use them for own benefit would be simply guilty. However, policemen, as a rule, didn't decide to contact owners of own magnificent departures. But the commonalty, and the main thing suffered from persuasive attention of police - numerous in those days carriers.
To carriers, for example, it was strictly forbidden to go down from a trestle. The droshky regardless of a season and a condition of streets was required to be kept clean. On the site the policeman individually solved, whether it is authorized to park in each concrete place. Naturally, it did it, being coordinated with wishes of rich house owners and owners of institutions on the first floors of buildings. Besides, rules forbade carriers to carry more than two persons in a droshky and to go on some streets of the cities without passengers. To all other carriers and other crews were forbidden to disturb movement of public transport - to the city horse and electric railroads. And documents on the vehicle needed to be kept under a passenger seat of a droshky.
For violations there were rather severe penalties which carriers feared like the plague.Stomachs, in 1894 some days pretending to be the carrier, I wrote: "From the middle of the street the imperative was distributed: "Drive off away! " Having turned back, I saw a majestic figure of my highest chief - the policeman who angrily did the gesture by the hand which has explained its order... Who knows, "number will write down" - and pay a penalty 2-3 rubles". Thus that the payment for an ezdka even in the capitals seldom reached a fifty-kopeck piece, the penalty appeared quite serious penalty. However at all the most severe. The policeman could send the violator to a site where trial could be tightened for days - others, for example. Or to send guilty for obligatory works like transportation of patients or corpses.
As a result carriers or drivers preferred to resolve an issue of violations of the rules on a place. And unlike nowadays for this purpose it wasn't required neither stops, nor conversations. After a whistle or a hail of the policeman the guilty shouted: "Take care! " also I threw under feet to the police officer a coin not less than 20 kopeks. That stepped on it and waited for the moment to lift, without drawing attention of sauntering curious public.
Without lamb in a piece of paper as bribes since ancient times were called, I didn't do neither transport registration, nor issue of driver's licenses. And such orders existed not only in the Russian Empire. One of pioneers of the Russian avtomobilizm Pyotr Engelmeyer so described process of obtaining the driving license in Paris in 1908:
"For the Russian person the strangeness was in a place of their delivery, but at all in a way of receiving. In France drivers examine and cars are examined by mining engineers. All France is divided on "mineralogical" (i.e. mountain) districts, and mining engineers know the address of cars. Not at once you will understand: what business to the engineer digging in a subsoil of the earth, before movement of crews on a terrestrial surface? It appears, mining engineers manage also boilers. Parisians warned me that obtaining permissions lasts endlessly and that acceleration requires graisser la patte, i.e. "помаслить a pad". I provide to the reader to understand this phrase; I tried not to understand it, arguing so: after all I not on the expensive homeland where will force to understand. I accepted other tactics: I stuck, both I bothered, and I was an eyesore. It very well helped: instead of two - three weeks as, according to experts, these permissions last, at me time left only one week".
"Correctly put accounting of cars wasn't"
With approach of a new, Bolshevist era old regime rules of automovement threw out on an ash heap of history. But by 1920 it became obvious that to do without them it is resolutely impossible. According to the regulations accepted then for the capital of the Soviet republic various speed of movement day and night, and also special rules of a parking and parking was established:
"... 23. It is forbidden to leave the car on the street without supervision.
24. The cars which have deteriorated on the street have to be protected and under a strict liability of the manager of garage to which they belong, have to be cleaned within 12 hours from the street of Moscow".
But the main thing - the transport inspection allocated with rather large powers was entered:
"... 31. Each car inspector, being on duty, has to have at itself the mandate made in the established form, behind appropriate signatures.
32. Car inspectors are allowed to stop in case of need of the car precisely a tag raising in the afternoon or a lamp at night.
33. In order to avoid a movement delay the car inspector with the consent of the passenger is obliged to check documents in a way, accompanying the car.
34. All persons who don't submit to legal requirements of transport inspection, are subject to immediate arrest and representation in the Moscow extraordinary commission.
35. The militia and the other authorities are obliged to render to car inspectors at execution of official duties by them all assistance up to application in extreme cases of the weapon".
And soon withdrawal process at violators of means in favor of guards was included to the habitual course since pre-revolutionary times. Juicy corruption scandals didn't happen mainly because car inspectors professed class approach in the work - forgave violations to socially close drivers - proletarians and gathered the nedorezannykh of bourgeoises. The benefit нэпманы got used to pay off from everything.
After elimination of the New Economic Policy there was a new source of the constant income of car inspection: many drivers with might and main калымили on state machineries also shared the left income with militiamen if only those didn't inform their administration about illegal the ezdkakh.
After the Great Patriotic War termination when to the country the stream of trophy cars rushed, pockets of GAI officers started filling up huge money without exaggeration.As soon as to the accounting of these cars started bringing an order, it appeared that owners of the vast majority of them have how many - нибудь no the distinct documents explaining an origin of vehicles: whether they were bought from citizens of the freed and won countries or selected at local owners. And only employees of GAI solved, to register the car on the new owner or to select her in the state income. On acquaintance or for the corresponding bribe the issue was resolved positively. And the selected cars quite often got to the state garages only after long work for the benefit of specific staff of GAI, their friends and acquaintances.
To expansion and deepening of the extremely favorable process stirred only one circumstance. Citizens from whom withdrew cars, wrote letters to the Central Committee and the government. However, the most part from them sent for check and the answer of subjects of whom in these letters complained. And heads of autoinspections didn't find any faults of subordinated structures. GAI of the Moscow region wasn't lucky only, and it wasn't lucky twice. The anonymous letter with the description of abuses of car inspectors situated near Moscow got to the secretary of the Central Committee of All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) Alexey Kuznetsov just appointed the curator of law enforcement agencies, trying to show to Stalin that that not for nothing entrusted it the most important site of work. And from Kuznetsov the letter got to the party controler Alekseeva who got down to business with unprecedented eagerness.
In December, 1946 on Kuznetsov reported that the facts stated in the anonymous letter, were confirmed:
"Check established the ugly facts in car inspection... The head of inspection Maksimov who created there such situation disposed of all affairs that correctly put account and registration of cars wasn't, he made abuses and to approach to itself subordinates, gave them in using the cars which have been selected at establishments and individuals. They disposed of cars as wanted: using the power, hung up any numbers if the car failed, gave another. Cars were stored ugly, spoiled, became useless".
But it was only small part of that occurred in GAI situated near Moscow.
"It isn't known from where the taken car it was legalized"
Check revealed many concrete cases of illegal statement of cars on the account.
"In work of the State traffic inspectorate of Management of militia on the Moscow region, - it was spoken in Alekseeva's report, - big disorders directed by registration of the state motor transport, in the organization of the account, storage and use of the cars which have been selected at establishments and individuals therefore a number of abuses took place are established. In the State traffic inspectorate were illegally put on the accounting of the car of establishments and individuals on the basis of unchecked documents, and often and without documents that creates favorable conditions for registration of illegally acquired cars.
In August, 1945 of the Art. the state car inspector on Orekhovo-Zuevo Korotkov illegally put on the account without documents own car of the lieutenant colonel Chernyak M. E. the Mercedes — Benz brands, thus Korotkov forged the signature of the chief of GAI Maksimov. Being in Germany, Chernyak bought this car at one German, and though except the reference of the former owner of the car, it had no documents, his car registered. In spite of the fact that the car inspection knew of criminal acts of the car inspector Korotkov in whom when checking shortage of two blank forms of passports on cars is found, Maksimov didn't make him responsible and was limited to the announcement to it reprimand for loss of forms.
Employees of GAI not only don't conduct necessary fight against persons who illegally get cars, but also commit crimes, covering various frauds with cars. Such fact is established: the engineer - the captain Minkin Yu. M. working in 1 department of Automobile management of 1 Ukrainian front, in April, 1945 bought on the basis of N1 of the Main automanagement under the guise of "autodetails" for 361 rub the Oppel car, and, having repaired it for 450 rub, in May, 1945 it through the State traffic inspectorate issued it as own car. In a month Minkin decided to register as own second car, "Mercedes - Benz", without having on it any documents. According to Maksimov's oral instructions the inspector Zhuravlev on technical data sheet issued earlier on the car "Oppel", instead of the last entered the Mercedes — Benz brand and correction certified. As a result of this forgery it isn't known from where the taken car it was legalized by Maksimov in Minkin's personal property and where the first car "Oppel" disappeared - it isn't known. With this swindler Minkin employees of GAI kept in close contact: for Maksimov it organized repair of its car "M-1" at the expense of means of 1 Ukrainian front;I delivered in GAI it isn't known to whom the belonging Mercedes — Benz car which Maksimov and Kalachev used.
There is a lot of such facts of illegal registration of cars. At the same time in the office of inspectorate quite often registration of cars which are acquired lawfully long is late and on them there are necessary documents".
But also it was not all.
"There are a lot of disorders and abuses, - Alekseeva, - in the account and use of the cars which have been selected at establishments and individuals who illegally got these cars wrote. Many such cars were late on area highways during war, but their account till 1945 weren't kept, and it is impossible to establish, how many they were and where they disappeared... The facts established at check show that many selected cars aren't considered, and in this case take abuse place. Drawing up lists and registration of affairs on cars the chief of 2 offices Davydov knows personally, but this work is carried out by it uncontrolledly, at discretion it enters changes in lists, reprints lists, and old destroys. During check it is revealed that 10 cars were struck off the list. Art. the inspector Ermakov the car DKV which was listed under N215, according to Maksimov's instructions took to Botkin hospital as a gift to professor Trutnev at whom Maksimov was treated in due time; the car is put on the account in Moscow as personally belonging to professor Trutnev with the permission of the head. Main thing management of militia of t. Galkina. The list didn't include the Oppel — Olympia car by which there went Maksimov, the car "Adler" which has been selected by the car inspector Petrakushin, the DKV car and motorcycles NSU and "Java". In inspection it isn't kept any account of the so-called ownerless cars which owners aren't established. Data on these cars anywhere aren't sent, and Head department of militia (the head of car inspection of t. Sokolov) doesn't demand from places of any reporting about use of such cars. Using it, employees of GAI of the Moscow region use "ownerless" cars at discretion".
On this background ordinary requisitions on roads already seemed a real trifle.
"On the main highways of area, - it was spoken in the report, - there are car inspectors who, using absence of control, allowed abuses, took bribes. Heads of car inspection of these abuses didn't open, and they were established only by the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR; in July, 1946 order of the Minister of Internal Affairs of t.Kruglova for the found disorders to Maksimov reprimand was declared, the persons which have allowed abuses, were discharged of work, and car inspectors were forbidden to raise directly on the highway from drivers fines".
As check, the order of the minister inspectors established started sabotaging silently, having purposefully finished a situation to the point of absurdity.
"To implementation of this order, - Alekseeva reported, - in GAI belonged formally and instead of penalties began to select for violations the rights at drivers of cars. Earlier employees of GAI monthly selected driver's licenses on the average at 600-700 people, and after the order in August the rights at 1742 and in September at 2587 drivers were selected. Analysis of affairs on violations is put unsatisfactorily. The certificates selected at drivers by car inspectors for various violations, are delivered in inspection with big delay (in 10-20 days), for this reason of business on violations understand out of time, and drivers are compelled to come several times from areas behind obtaining certificates. During check in inspection 1479 certificates selected at drivers which part lies since May - July this year were revealed. Such orders create favorable circumstances for abuses. According to stories of car inspectors, there are many such cases when the driver is offered them by bribes if only to avoid a call in car inspection".
After all this other abuses of the chief of GAI situated near Moscow Victor Maksimov already aren't perceived seriously. It, for example, forced subordinates to repair to it the apartment, to supply it with products, to go on its affairs to Moscow. But then "use of subordinates for own consumer services" was considered as the offense incompatible with a rank of the communist. And if Pavel Davydov forging lists of withdrawn transport, received on the party line strict reprimand with entering in the registration form, his immediate superior Maksimov remained without party membership card. And to the chief of Regional Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Moscow region Mikhail Zhuravlev charged to eradicate all shortcomings of subordinated GAI.
Any data on involvement of bribe takers to criminal liability in business were absent. That other car inspectors, on - visible, apprehended as the guide to action.
"Got bribes for reception of examinations on the driving license"
Those who took not on a rank came across and punished only.For example, at the beginning of 1958 in Moscow arrested group of staff of GAI and teachers of the driving schools which have put delivery of the rights for bribes on a stream. In the report of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR in CPSU Central Committee about this business it was spoken:
"The Department of Internal Affairs of executive committee of the Moscow city council of deputies of workers together with prosecutor's office of the city of Moscow exposed the bribe takers bossing in the State traffic inspectorate of the Department of Internal Affairs of mountains. Moscow, driving schools of managements of trade and passenger transport of the Moscow Executive Committee of the City Soviet of People's Deputies, and also at DOSAAF N5 school. In total on business 3 employees of the State traffic inspectorate, including members of CPSU Krokhotin, Makarov, Istomin, Zaytsev, Markin, Allowances and non-parties of Punks and Kudryavtsev are arrested and brought to trial of 20 people, from them.
By investigation it is established that the chief 3-го offices of the State traffic inspectorate of mountains. Moscow Krokhotin and the stated workers subordinated to it above, having become on a way of abuses the official position, got bribes from teachers of driving schools for reception of examinations on the driving license from persons who had no sufficient knowledge of traffic regulations and equipment of driving. Teachers of driving schools Nebolsin, Briskin, Kanushikov, Izhikov, etc. privately prepared in military units of drivers for a payment of 700-800 rubles from the person, training provided formally and to provide the driving license badly prepared listeners, bribed workers of the State traffic inspectorate.
Only in 1956-1957 the specified teachers received for training of 600 soldiers in military units about 500 000 rubles from which more than 60 000 rubles transferred in a type of a bribe to Krokhotin and his accomplices. At a search cash was found and withdrawn from Krokhotin in the sum of 152 000 rubles, the cars "Volga" and "Muscovite", and also it is a lot of other values.
The teacher of driving school of Management of trade transport of the Moscow Executive Committee of the City Soviet of People's Deputies brought to trial Briskin showed that workers of the State traffic inspectorate of the Department of Internal Affairs of mountains. Moscow Vasilyev, Ivanov, Shatalov and Chebotaryov also took bribes. The investigation of case proceeds. As a result of check of work of the State traffic inspectorate of the Department of Internal Affairs of Moscow it is established that the chief of this State traffic inspectorate Nesterenko, in essence, withdrew from control of work of the employees subordinated to it, their education was engaged poorly therefore in due time I didn't expose available shortcomings of State traffic inspectorate work.Nesterenko is punished in a party order and relieved of the post. Measures to strengthening by shots of the management of the State traffic inspectorate and to improvement of qualitative structure of her workers" are taken.
Similar measures were taken then still many times. However traditions of such prescription and force are permanently stronger than any irregular and short-term administrative actions.