World War II in consciousness of the vast majority of modern inhabitants of Kiev, obviously, is connected with three dates: On May 9, on June 22, on September 29.
The first - the Victory Day though actually World War II that day still at all didn't end.
The second - the beginning советско - the German war when "Kiev bombed, to us declared that war" began.
Eventually, the third - a reference point of mass executions in Babi Yar.
At first Jews, then - the Gipsy, then - especially dangerous prisoners of war, then - the convinced Ukrainian nationalists, and then - everything who really or potentially could prevent creation of "a new order".
Though there were also other, also meaning dates. On September 17, 1939, when the campaign of Red army against Poland for which some tens of thousands of inhabitants of Kiev and almost all civil motor transport were mobilized began.
On July 11, 1941, when the German prospecting groups encountered on the small river Irpen strong defense of the Soviet armies; On September 19 the same year when the Red army left Kiev, and on September 24 when explosions, and then fires on the Khreshchatyk and in all downtown began.
And, eventually, on November 6, 1943, when the city again included red armies.
And each of these dates was connected with human tragedies.
We will tell, soon after end of the Polish campaign of 1939, completed considerably inhabitants of Kiev 44-ая the Kiev shooting division was thrown on the Finnish front where was lost in the woods - an environment left very few fighters and commanders.
Command of a division was immediately arrested and shot, and that captured which Finland after completion of war returned to the Soviet Union as one got to GULAG.
In the first weeks after the beginning советско - the German war in armies mobilized 200 thousand inhabitants of Kiev; 35 thousand more went at a militia and destructive groups.
Since the end of June, 1941 evacuation of the enterprises and establishments to the east - with them, according to official statistics began, 325 thousand people left. When it became clear that Kiev will fall, security officers shot prisoners of Lukjyanovsky prison and cellars of sites of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs, all - thousands people.
Then, at the time of retreat of Red army with 930 thousand inhabitants of Kiev, in the city there were about 400 thousand; obviously, 10-20 thousand more of population were made by refugees who by hook or by crook settled down in USSR capital.
How many people were lost during the explosions caused by the Soviet radio-controlled land mines and fires in the downtown which began on September 24 and lasted till October 2?
It is precisely not known, but an idea of the scale of accident is given by the text from OUN published by members - Ukrainskoye Slovo newspaper m of October 21, 1941: "…The first explosion by a cloud of a smoke eclipsed clear day. The flame captured Toy Store shop which was at the corner of streets Pro-carved and the Khreshchatyk. With it began. Explosion followed explosion. The fire extended up on Proreznaya Street and was thrown on both parties of the Khreshchatyk... 5 best movie theaters, theater of the young viewer, KOVO theater, a radio theater, conservatory and music school, the central post office, the City Council house, 2 biggest department stores, 5 best restaurants and cafe, circus, a city pawnshop, 5 biggest hotels ("Kontinental", "Sava", "The grandee - hotel" and other), the central city railway station (ticket offices), the house of the architect and scientists, 2 passages, printing house, 8-ая shoe factory, the high school, over 100 best shops burned down. Many libraries, the interesting documents, valuable things were lost. For example, in the Kiev conservatory the big body and about 200 grand pianos and pianos burned down. It is heavy even to imagine and count the huge sizes of this unprecedented crime of councils!"
By the way, at the beginning of 1942 edition of "The Ukrainian word" also will be shot in Babi Yar - together with illusions of part of nationalist movement on restoration such - syaky Ukrainian life under nazi occupation.
And in parallel with these fires executions in Babi Yar began. Began with Jews though among shot at the end of September - at the beginning of October there were also non Jews - members of the mixed families.
On October 5 authorized at group of Yug armies Hauptmann Hans Koch reported the ministries of occupied east areas: in Kiev nearly 35 thousand persons are destroyed.
Obviously, some thousands of Kiev Jews nevertheless hid from organizers of "a new order", but during cold and hungry winter of 1941-42 they became its first victims.
Then, according to the census which has been carried out by the Kiev town council by a state for April 1, 1942, in the city there were 352 thousand inhabitants.
If to consider that a certain number of inhabitants of Kiev in the first months after arrival of Germans returned to the city from nearby villages or were it is released home from among prisoners of war, not less than 20-25 thousand people were lost in the winter. Meanwhile, executions didn't stop - Jews, Roma, communists, nationalists...
And in the city гибнули captured, concluded in camps. Only in Darnitsky camps were lost, according to modern researchers, 130-150 thousand people.
Over 100 thousand young inhabitants of Kiev "voluntary" - were forcibly sent for works to Germany, from where returned not all is mainly, not because couldn't or were lost in the foreign land but because didn't want to come back to Stalin "paradise", hoping for the best life in post-war democratic Europe.
To 40-50 thousand inhabitants of Kiev from the same reasons receded with the German army to the west and who now will condemn them for it after the Holodomor and Big terror?
So, everything, at the time of return of Red army, in Kiev there were no more than 180 thousand inhabitants. Already from their number new mobilization on fighting and labor fronts began.
And again about Babi Yar. In publications the figure in 150, and even in 200 thousand Jews which were allegedly shot by nazis in this place is called from time to time.
Nevertheless, any nazi document doesn't give similar figures, oh, even close to them.
We will tell, after a capture of the capital of Ukraine nazis prepared for destruction of 50 thousand of Jewish population - possibly, approximately so much and was lost Jews in Kiev, but their number enter and shot in Babi Yar, and the dead in the winter of 1941/42, and tortured in camps for prisoners of war. 200 thousand are a total of Jews in Kiev a state for 1941.
Really none of them weren't mobilized in Red army and didn't leave in evacuation?
However, unless the figure in 40-50 thousand destroyed by the ethnic principle isn't terrible? Also don't forget that to "final decision" were subject not only Jews, and and Roma...
Now about participation of Ukrainians - police officers in hecatombs of Babi Yar about what some authors write. On September 29-30 and in the next days Ukrainians there didn't shoot anybody. Two mentioned police officers of a battalion were created only from Germans.
Nevertheless, "the Ukrainian trace" in destruction of the Kiev Jews, certainly, is.
In - the first, cards with the requirement to all Jews of Kiev to gather in special places volunteers from among soldiers "stuck Bukovinsky куреня" - paramilitaristic nationalist formation by number about 400 persons which OUN - m directed to Kiev from Chernovtsy in illusory expectation to support with these children future sincerely Ukrainian power.
In - the second, among those who selected at doomed on the death of their thing, on later memoirs of the German participants of events, there were some tens just enlisted on service to the Fuhrer полицаев - Ukrainians.
And, eventually, here paradox of Babi Yar: полицаи - Ukrainians were actively acquainted with executions when the main contingent of the executed made... also Ukrainians.
Well, in this fact there is nothing essentially new to national history.
In general, Babi Yar it isn't simple a place where "the highest race" destroyed those whom I considered by "the lowest races". It also symbol.
Symbol of continuation of that tragedy which next stage included Kiev from World War II beginning. To it Bykovnya was a place of mass hecatombs, now Babi Yar became such place, though there several times there were executions of "enemies of the people" in 1930-x years.
Revenge symbol - after all the first executions in Babi Yar took place still when Kiev was in a zone of responsibility 6-й Wehrmacht armies, and her commander ordered to soldiers to help to drive Jews in places of their destruction.
Then 6-ая the army reached Stalingrad, and there died terrible death - who in fight and who after capitulation, in Soviet to captivity when captured some honeycombs of kilometers drove the snow-covered steppe, without food, without allowing to be warmed.
Eventually, a symbol of roughness of the Soviet power which decided to erase during the period of "the developed construction of communism" memory of this place. Ravine partitioned off a dam and became from pits of stone plant in it to swing on pipes a pulp - water and clay mix. On March 13, 1961 the dam height to the six-storied house collapsed.
Attempt to wipe out Babi Yar turned back the Kurenevsky tragedy with new mass victims.
Nevertheless, all - after World War II large-scale human hecatombs in Kiev which before it permanently went, with a break for NEPA, since 1918, stopped.Then the repressive Soviet car operated selectively: "cosmopolitans"... "doctors - murderers"... "men of the sixties"...
Perhaps the horror of Babi Yar affected even on got used to the sea of blood of party leaders? Or just it seems?