Experts of the analytical center were based were based on official statistics of Rosstat and the Ministry of Internal Affairs, and also on own settlement indicators. Research was conducted in 156 cities of Russia with the population more than 100 000 people. The rating included 50 dangerous cities of the country. For an assessment of a criminal situation the average data for 2002-2006 are provided. The forecast for 2008 are the estimated data modeling growth or falling of quantity of crimes. The forecast was formed on gain or falling trends for 2002-2006
The analysis was carried out by the following types of crimes: violent crime ("crimes against the personality") - "murder and attempt at murder", "rape and attempt at rape", "deliberate causing heavy harm to health"; "crimes against property" - "robbery", "robbery", "theft". And also crimes in the economy and crime sphere, connected with a drug trafficking. On the cities of Russia of the Ministry of Internal Affairs publishes only summary statistical information, without specification by types of crimes. For data acquisition by concrete types of crimes in a certain city experts of the center carried out the special analysis, используяданныео to crime structure in this region, adjusted for the general data on crime structure in the Russian cities of similar type.
SURGUT. THE EX-THE CAPITAL OF THE CRIME
On average annual indicators of a crime rate in 2002-2006 Surgut was the most dangerous city of Russia: here 493 crimes on 10 000 inhabitants were committed. It is twice more, than on the average about the country. This year, according to the forecast, Surgut will be only on the tenth place in a rating.
PERM. NEW CRIMINAL CAPITAL
Two years ago Perm won first place among the most criminal cities of Russia: 638,7 crimes on 10 000 inhabitants. According to the forecast, the city will keep the leadership and this year.On serious crimes (murders, rapes) Perm is included in the rating twenty, and it first in "overall ranking" do thefts, robberies and robberies.
Drug trafficking - main, but not the only problem of the capital of the Jewish autonomous region. The first place on level of narcocrimes, the seventh - on infliction of harm to health, the tenth - on thefts and the eleventh - on rapes.
KYZYL. TERRIBLE CITY
The Tuva capital with the population of only 109 000 people - the center of crimes against the personality. Kyzyl is in the lead in a rating not only on murders (9,32 on 10 000 inhabitants), but also on rapes, and also in cases of deliberate causing heavy harm to health.
PENZA. PROBLEMS OF GROWTH
This city - on 98 - a place on a crime rate in 2002-2006. Thus here the highest dynamics of growth of number of crimes: almost for 33% a year. This year Penza, by calculations, will take already 33-е a place in a rating of the most dangerous cities of Russia.
SHCHELKOVO. QUIET FALLING
In Shchelkovo situated near Moscow the situation improves: the quantity of crimes per capita decreases almost by 6% a year. This year Shchelkovo will be included in ten the safest cities of Russia.
The undisputed leader on total of committed crimes (237 000 in 2006), but it is far not the most dangerous city on a crime rate: with an indicator of 198 crimes on 10 000 inhabitants Moscow takes 111-е a place in a rating.
CAHKT - PETERSBURG. NOT SO GANGSTER
Petersburg glorified in literature and a cinema as the criminal capital of Russia, in practice that isn't. At the second-large city in Russia, naturally, and the second place on total of crimes - 103 600 (2006). Thus on a crime rate of Sankt - Petersburg takes 122-е a place.
NOVOMOSKOVSK. OASIS OF SAFETY
Novomoskovsk Tula region - the safest city of Russia, in is mute is made least of all crimes - 105 on 10 000 inhabitants (2006). This year, by calculations, the crime rate in Novomoskovsk will grow up a little, but it all the same remains to the quietest.
KAZAN. FUTURE OF SHADOW ECONOMY
This year Kazan has to become the city with the highest level of economic crimes - 74, 5 on 10 000 inhabitants. It is interesting that during the period with 2002-го till 2006.Kazan wasn't included at all in the first twenty of the cities - leaders by this type of crimes.
The cities - побратаны
At the end of 2001-го the terrible circular was sent to all regional divisions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs - the Minister of Internal Affairs Boris Gryzlov of that time promised to dismiss the militiamen, refusing to accept statements from injured citizens.
And - about a miracle! - following the results of 2002 of statements became almost three times more - 13 million (5 million in 2001 - m). In 2005 - m of an innovation fixed the order, and statements became even more - nearly 20 million. It turns out what to declare "acquaintance" to crime every seventh Russian hurries.
With that it there was a crime, the militia agrees not always - "statement" turns into "crime" only when upon incident open criminal case; and here statisticians of the Ministry of Internal Affairs can be suspected of minimalism: at 5 million statements in 2001 - m - about 3 million criminal cases. Last year approximately as much. However, already at 20 million addresses of citizens. "In system of the Ministry of Internal Affairs learned to juggle dexterously very much with figures", - the deputy chairman of State Duma Committee on safety Gennady Gudkov speaks. He considers, what even statements, and those 50% are fixed only. However, three years ago quite the system public prosecutor Vladimir Ustinov declared to himself even more frightening proportions, having estimated a real crime rate at 9 million crimes a year at 3 million criminal cases declared by militia.
But even if to believe official statistics - it becomes easier not. It turns out that "dashing the ninetieth" simply flowed in "dashing zero". Authorities were legalized, criminal groups broke up; organized crime - that that always was very famous, - was dissolved in space of the huge growing rich country. And the crime rate remained same, even grew up a little. Here only kill, judging by official data, it is slightly less. But plunder more and steal. Probably, it is unpleasant symptoms of growing economy. As Lenin spoke, "all history of the capital is history of violence and a robbery, blood and dirt".
Professor of criminalistics of the Moscow state linguistic university Boris Kalachev prefers to refer to Platon. The philosopher said that the state can be considered safe, if a ratio rich and poor no more than 1:4. In Russia, owing to economy growth, the number of the rich grows - but poor is much bigger."For the majority of countries of Western Europe this ratio is equal today 1:5. For such countries as Italy or Spain, - 1:7, and we see that there the criminal situation is slightly worse, than Central European. And in Russia in the middle of 90-x this ratio reached 1:100; now, according to official figures, at us 12 poor people are the share of one rich, and on informal - 20. To become the safe state and consequently, to eliminate the reasons generating crime, we should reduce this gap by 5 times", - Kalachev speaks. To reduce not easy; here, for example, inflation - as it is known, beats on all, but is most sick on poor.
Probably, it is simple coincidence, but crime rates and inflations grow in Russia almost equally, an annual gain on number of crimes - about 13%. It is a question of city crime - in the village it is notable more quietly. Biggest criminal "contributions", of course, at Moscow and Petersburg - thus they are rather safe cities: the huge number of crimes is banal is explained by number of the population, and in terms of soul - the capitals will be not included even in one hundred the most criminal cities. Rostov - the father, gangster Petersburg as it appears, the myths having nothing in common with criminal reality of the country. In Russia absolutely other "hero towns", and at everyone "specialization".
The Ministry of Internal Affairs doesn't publish detailed statistics on the cities, only on regions, - so journalists of Newsweek decided to find out independently, what cities in Russia are least of all compatible to life. The research ordered in sociologists lasted nearly three months, and as a result we not only received a rating of the most dangerous cities of the homeland, but also could determine leaders by different types of crimes (results of research look at p. 22). Having taken a view of a criminal Russia map, correspondents of Newsweek went to study hard destinies of three cities: Kyzyl leading on murders and rapes; Birobidzhan, the cities with the highest level of narcocrimes; and Perm, the all-around champion in the overall ranking on level of crimes.
WHERE IN RUSSIA IT IS WELL TO DIE
On the night of June 12 in a call center of the Department of Internal Affairs of Kyzyl the woman called and reported that to her husband splashed in a face acid. Into place left militia patrol and the correspondents who have joined it of Newsweek. On a floor of kitchen the drunk citizen sat and rubbed red eyes. "Spheres to it burned out! " - the spouse of the injured electrician Prokhorov capaciously explained.According to its story, the husband bought a portion of a shish kebab, but meat was rigid. "I wanted to understand, and to me the shashlychnik in a muzzle scattered", - the victim complained. Scattered, of course, not acid, and "pepper brandy" from a barrel. The man who has gone blind on one eye came back home, grabbed an axe and gathered was to settle offenders, but far didn't leave - the wife disarmed. "Arrest their [shashlychnik], and that will cut all at night! " - the woman begged.
Hundred-thousandth Kyzyl for many years is in the lead on serious crimes: nearly 100 murders and under 60 rapes a year on 10 000 population - the highest rate across Russia. But that night in the capital of the Republic of Tuva killed nobody. It seems that the wife connected the electrician Prokhorov - as promised. "I as here I arrived, started understanding: why there are a lot of murders on the household soil, from where all these knifes and axes? To me speak, Tuvinians - the same mountaineers, blood plays. Anything similar! Alcoholism and unemployment is simple! " - the Acting Minister of Internal Affairs of the republic Alexey Korneev transferred to Tuva in 2001 - m from uneasy Chechnya speaks.
Korneev assures that last year the number of the registered crimes in Tuva declined. The prosecutor of the republic Pavel Bukhtoyarov specifies: "Decrease is, but the crime rate remains above an average about the country, and level heavy and especially heavy considerably exceeds an average value across Russia". And the number of murders, judging by the first months of this year, only grows. In the small city each death - a shock. "A few years ago on New Year's Eve in Kyzyl there were seven murders. Reported to Moscow, told that all are opened without delay, - the head Ulug - Hemsky department of investigative management of SK at prosecutor's office of the Russian Federation Gennady Kyuryu remembers. - In Moscow were surprised to such quantity: if in the capital in 100 times more to the people lives, so at us 700 people in a night had to kill? "
The following watch which correspondents of Newsweek visited, too was evening. The first serious call arrived about midnight. Militia handheld transceiver cracking transfers orientation: "Around an old cemetery to the man put knife wound. Three guys of the Tuva nationality are searched, are dressed in all black". The house where there lives the victim, has a fast. On an entrance floor - a blood pool. In the apartment doctors tie up to the man a hand. "I came back home, at me asked to light, - the victim tells. - I answered that I have no cigarettes. Me hit with a knife".
The criminal chronicle in local newspapers dazzles with headings: "Together saw, and then killed". 35- summer Omak Mongush drank with the brother-in-law. Then swore. Omak a board broke to the relative a skull. The deputy chief of the Department of Internal Affairs of Kyzyl Vladimir Danzy assures that the majority of household crimes reveal without delay. "Found recently in the middle of the street a corpse of the man with the cut throat; thought that assault, - Danza's captain remembers. - It appeared that family quarrel. The drunk husband chased the wife with a knife, the woman pulled out a knife and the spouse" killed.
"At us not war goes, and unemployment and alcoholism destroy the people", - the Supreme shaman of Tuva Mongush Kenin - Lopsan speaks. It accepts us in a small izba on a backyard of museum of local lore. People who follow to it council and disposal of heavy diseases, the shaman puts opposite. Here sat both Boris Yeltsin, and Yury Luzhkov, and Dalai Lama. That occurs in the republic, the old shaman perceives as the personal tragedy. Earlier, he remembers, men drank seldom and only is closer to forty. "Now drink to unconsciousness, don't work, and Moscow looks at it one eye", - Kenin - Lopsan complains, assuring that blood of Tuvinians absolutely "doesn't maintain aggression of alcohol".
Recently the Tuva youth passed from vodka to strong beer. "It is any misfortune, - sigh Tuva the opera. - Bottles from - under beer find on a place practically each crime". Fights arise literally from scratch. At three o'clock in the morning in the dark square at a monument to Red guerrillas in the face of correspondents of Newsweek the group of athletes - fighters didn't divide girls with the drunk company. Fighters, clearly, beat rivals. Guys retired, but as it appeared, for a while. About our bench the thrown beer bottle was smashed. Afterwards with wild shout one of beaten ran out, holding over the head unclear where the found sovok shovel. Fight came to the end under windows of republican FSB.
Nevertheless of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and prosecutor's office assure: the general shaft of crime decreased on a third. The reason - summer of last year in Tuva forbade "one-armed bandits". Earlier in the republic about 1300 slot machines worked. "Killed security guards and cashiers to select revenue, plundered on streets of passersby - and right there lowered in machine guns", - Vladimir Danzy speaks. The Tuva militiamen had so much work only in 90-е. Then on the republic the wave of riots, murders and robberies swept.On houses there were inscriptions "Russians, be cleaned! ". Into the cities entered the strengthened police squads and OMON.
Now, if to trust statistics, there are even no the crimes committed by an organized criminal group. "Yes we - that and serious have no groups", - the Acting Interior Minister of the republic Alexey Korneev shrugs shoulders. In national memory I remained only Didy - оол Dongak by nickname Hera whom killed in 1995 - m. Now tournament on free-style wrestling is called his name. Last time the Tuva organized crime reminded of itself in 1999 - m when the acting mayor of Kyzyl Heinrich Epp was killed. Its car undermined, and in the official thrust 4 bullets. The prosecutor's office considers murder custom-made - Epp actively directed fight against a city crime. Now the opera are engaged only "in work with the population", including with the youngest, - in 2006 - m the militia detained two seniors who have killed in a night for March 9 the woman and two men. To investigators teenagers admitted that before beating to death 39 - the summer woman, they raped her - by this type of crimes Kyzyl too the leader.
In vicinities of Kyzyl crime fight, calling to the aid the highest forces. Two years ago the presiding judge Chaa - the Holsky area Maxim Bautdinov and the local prosecutor Mikhail Mongush constructed on the town Chaa suburb - Hol white субурган - a Buddhist stone mortar. Suburgan, on their belief, had to protect inhabitants of the settlement from the evil. "Under a mortar monks dug crime tools - a knife and a carbine from which the father killed the son", - Mikhail Mongush tells. The prosecutor and the judge put the uniform, a bag in a mortar with grain, a plow and a sickle. Passed two years - and субурган as Mikhail Mongush, apparently, speaks earned.
"Earlier tension [in Chaa - Hole] was strong, an unhealthy situation", - the judge Bautdinov admits. "The local killed the wife, having suspected her of incorrectness, - the judge remembers one of the first affairs. - In the face of children I punched to the woman the head a poker, then I stripped naked and methodically I tore out it from the head hair". This year in Chaa - Hole declined crime sharply - yet wasn't neither murders, nor rapes. And a settlement half, that that is closer to субургану, according to the judge, "even ceased to drink vodka".
"Earlier in these thickets children hid, playing war game. Everything changed in 1985. As Gorbachev forbade to drink - men remembered a grass.And we started being at war with it", - smiling smells hemp "bouquet" the chief of territorial department of militia of the Lenin District Department of the Interior of the Jewish autonomous region Mikhail Doroshev. This year in the territory of area thickets of hemp of 186,3 hectares are already revealed. It is destroyed in tens hectares, but by painfully favorable climatic conditions in EAO - about 30 degrees from May to August and the increased humidity. According to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the area is included in the first ten on level of the crimes connected with a drug trafficking. And on our research, the area capital, Birobidzhan, wins in a rating of the cities first place on this indicator: in a year on the average 46,5 narcocrimes on 10 000 inhabitants here are made.
"We have in the area territory a source of raw materials for production of drugs, the big areas of wild-growing hemp, there passes the federal highway Khabarovsk - Chita on which there is a transit of a potion across the territory of the Far East, Transbaikalia and Siberia, - is frank vice-the governor of EAO Gennady Antonov. - Therefore level of crimes in the sphere of drugs exceeds level about the country. Figure you won't deceive. Thus from 187 000 population of area nearly a half lives in Birobidzhan - 76 000 people".
The acting chief of FDCS on EAO Valery Molokanov assures that the situation improves. Also refers to statistics: "If in 2004 142 crimes, in 2007 - m - already 290 were revealed", - the narcopolice officer speaks. According to him, in FDCS rating on the revealed crimes the division is included in the top ten (worst of all, on a rating, against drugs fight in Adygea and Kursk region). Molokanov says that years through 15 in the territory of area of "nonsense" doesn't remain in general - "the main thing, drug traffickers know now that sooner or later will appear behind a lattice". Local field investigators in a course have a saying: "You want to receive an article - stop by in the Jew".
Thus in next, Amur, areas of hemp grows many times more - about 1000 hectares. Couriers carry it to EAO and sell local, but for export to the Khabarovsk and Seaside edges there is nevertheless a local grass. "In our hemp - the high maintenance of such activator as tetrahydrocannabinol, and addicts consider that the hemp which has been grown up in EAO, doesn't concede on "quality" of that that deliver from the Chuysky valley", - Molokanov explains.
If "leadership" of area can be explained with the natural reasons, Birobidzhan heads a rating thanks to the transport infrastructure."In the territory of Birobidzhan make out all malefactors whom detain on a post of traffic police of "Ikur". On this post cars from EAO towards Khabarovsk are examined, and it is impossible to go round a post. On the right - the Trans-Siberian Railway, at the left - the bog", - is told by the chief of the regional Department of Internal Affairs Vasily Oleynik.
The operative of FDCS on EAO, the lieutenant colonel Dmitry Pechenyuk, agrees with the general Oleynik: "Even if the walking courier will try to bypass a post, it will be surely noticed by the field investigators tracing everything to a vicinity". But recognizes that it is possible to consider smuggling not always. Recently information on the big consignment of goods hidden in heads of cabbage arrived. But it wasn't succeeded to reveal it - "not to cut one hundred heads of cabbage" and if the goods don't appear, then also to indemnify loss. "Though we know that when the head of cabbage only starts growing, into its basis insert capacity with gashishny oil. To vegetable maturing capacity appears in cabbage leaves, and it becomes almost impossible to find the container", - the lieutenant colonel tells.
Correspondents of Newsweek were on duty on "Ikur's" post the whole day, but at couriers, probably, was output. "Anything. In few months when hemp will ripen, at Irmina the real work" will begin, - the militia captain Igor Okladnikov speaks, stroking a brown spaniel. In 2005 Irmina found in the truck transporting hay, 82 kg of marihuana, but usually goods carry small parties.
Grass in EAO - not only article of criminal export, but also popular goods of internal consumption. Here it even use as currency: at the beginning of June field investigators detained 22 - summer Kirill Smirnov who tried to exchange 7 kg of marihuana for Toyota Corolla. And in February the "subblissing-out" driver of the Birobidzhan minibus decided to sweep to Khabarovsk. Behind it the pursuit began, but "Gazelle" rushed on the route even with the shot tires. One of passengers jumped out on the road and was lost. The driver received 9 years of prison. According to official figures, in area there isn't a lot of addicts - on the account less than 300 people consist. But walking on the night city, correspondents of Newsweek came across the young people sipping "Baltic" and smoking roll-ups from whom smelled as acetone and marihuana. This preparation call "chemical which"; it is considered that from the marihuana soaked in acetone stronger effect, than from a usual grass.
Narcocrime - not the only trouble of Birobidzhan.On our research, the city is included also in the twenty very best on murders, rapes and thefts. Last year at withdrawal of 160 kg of drugs the militia found "bonus" - six guns and five grenades. "Yes, the criminal world is extensive, and at us the good distribution system" here is adjusted, - the chief of the Department of Internal Affairs of area Vasily Oleynik speaks. In EAO of 4 colonies, and many condemned after release settle in area, the general explains. In his opinion, they - that also make frame of the Birobidzhan narcocrime - push a potion to fellow countrymen and "colleagues" from other cities. "Not so long ago opened a gang which delivered drugs in a colony of the Ulyanovsk region", - Oleynik speaks. Criminals sent parcels with banks of gashishny oil to the intermediary, and that through the employee of FSIN sent them to prison. However, the neighbourhood with zones doesn't do Birobidzhan by the most dangerous city of Russia. This a rank Perm - the capital of the prison region deserved.
PROBLEMS WITH REGISTRATION
Crime account in Russia is kept in three parameters: number of the statements accepted at citizens about the incidents, the registered crimes and the criminal cases brought upon these crimes. In 2001 controlling structures of the Ministry of Internal Affairs began to watch that their colleagues didn't "wrap" arriving statements - and the number of the registered addresses sharply increased. Last year 3,58 million crimes, including 22 000 murders, 340 000 cases of robbery and a robbery, 1,57 million thefts were registered. 2,99 million criminal cases are opened.