In Ukraine - high level of public tolerance to the corruption, caused by insufficient legal education and consciousness of Ukrainians. The manager of the new anti-corruption project Irina Negreeva told about it in interview to "The German wave".
Experts of the Kiev international institute of sociology and the "Assistance to Active Participation of Citizens in Corruption Counteraction in Ukraine" project gathered all results of researches of corruption over the last ten years. The created database covers the hour period from 1998 to 2008.
As the general director of the Kiev international institute of sociology Vladimir Paniotto noted, these data of researches often aren't available to the Ukrainian and international public and are quite often lost.
The most corrupted Ukrainians consider higher educational and medical institutions, law-enforcement structures, and also bodies of regulation and checks of business activity. More than a half of respondents are positive to this phenomenon if it solves their problems.
But only 13 percent confessed that bribed. According to Irina Negreeva, it is a consequence of lack of information of citizens: "When the person ask: Whether "You are ready to overcome corruption? ", and only 10 percent say that are ready, it testifies that people don't know how to do it and don't want to do it. That it is simpler to them to bribe". According to researches, nearly two thirds of Ukrainians faced corruption.
The scale of shadow economy in Ukraine reaches 45% of gross domestic product, and in the country 40% of the population are compelled to bribe.
The analysis of a situation allows to say with confidence that corruption in the country struck all authorities, including, and that are urged to fight against it: courts, prosecutor's office, law enforcement agencies, etc. Business reached before that the western investors whom the power persistently invites to invest money in our economy, with Ukraine refuse to cooperate simply.
Reasons of corruption
Militiamen carry to the reasons which significantly increase corruption level in Ukraine:
frequent changes of the legislation in the sphere of regulation of business activity;
imperfection of a tax policy;
lack of necessary check of professional and moral qualities of the persons accepted on civil service;
formal character of system of declaring of the income of civil servants;
imperfection of legal base;
existence of shadow economy.
To take, for example, a factor of shadow economy. According to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, nearly 100 authorities in Ukraine "... have the right of check of separate aspects of business activity. That is corruption as the phenomenon is derivative of shadow economy, they are inseparably linked between themselves. And its income in a type of remunerations and services, according to the experts, makes over 3 billion UAH a year... "
Therefore, volumes of shadow economy in Ukraine remain an invariable source for increase of scales of the Ukrainian corruption and are directly proportional to one another. It should be noted that in the country to call exact figure of scales of shadow economy anybody won't venture. Nevertheless, according to the experts and the experts, existing scales of shadow economy make about 45% of gross domestic product!
To whom bribe?
The problem of corruption is considered by very serious 90% of the interrogated Ukrainians. According to research of the international non-governmental organization of Transparency International which is most corrupted by structure the population considers militia, on the second place - courts, the third is held by customs. Thus, corruption level for the last year, according to Ukrainians, didn't decrease.
Corruption penetrates all Ukrainian society, beginning from regional structures of the power and finishing the highest governmental structures. So, the place is in the party list today from $300 thousand to $1,7 million, depending on party. As the Association of political consultants declares, it is possible to become the deputy of city council of all for $15 thousand, and here a merstvo will pull already on $1 million
According to the estimates of experts of Association, for overcoming 3%-го a barrier of the city party organization it is necessary to spend about $80 thousand. Publicity expenses, petition, carrying out mass actions, distribution of propaganda materials, financing of work of staffs are taken into account and so on. And, the spent sum at all doesn't guarantee hit of Party members in the City Council.
Election campaign in regional council, according to experts, will cost a regional Communist Party organization more, than $120 thousand, and "number through passage" in the list - in $15 thousand.As for mayor elections in the regional centers, the prices here the simply transcendental. As it became known, one of applicants for a chair of the mayor only for promotion of the candidate offered one of parties of $250 thousand
The judicial system is also corrupted through. By means of a bribe it is possible to pay off from anything. For example, "to knock off" 1 year of prison, the judge is paid by $1 thousand. As a whole, the bribe size for criminal cases can fluctuate from $10 to $100 thousand
The main trouble of vessels in Ukraine - their dependence on power structures: prosecutor's offices, militia and tax administration. Independence of judges of law enforcement agencies exists only on paper. Courts, as well as at the Soviet power, continue to obey prosecutor's office and militia. Militiamen have a fulfilled mechanism how to force to work courts for them. Between security officers and judges - "barter" developed bribe takers even. The first know about bribes, but close to it eyes, in exchange demanding that the second pronounced custom-made sentences.
Grow appetites and the Ukrainian officials. In comparison with last year, the average size of bribes in Ukraine grew twice. As reported in Department on public relations of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, on the average, 8,6 thousand UAH (in 2004 - 4,7 thousand UAH were m) now grease the palm. 136 times the militia caught citizens when the sum of a bribe exceeded 10 thousand UAH and 52 times - when took more than 30 thousand. The most widespread reasons for receiving a bribe is a signing of papers on land use, property realization at cut prices, compensation of the VAT and so on. The official of the Ministry of Defence who has requested from "client" more than $0,5 millionbecame "leader" of year
As for policy, Ukrainians consider it corrupted mainly from - for combinations many figures of political activity and business. Thus, the majority of inhabitants of the country considers that corruption remained at the same level, as before. In 2005 of nearly 40% of the interrogated Ukrainians declared that him and to members of their families was necessary to bribe. For these purposes the country population spends today money much more, than for payment of taxes.
The bribery and in army prospers. Often workers of commissariats take money for quite lawful "slopes". After all the youth not only that is frightened by army, so also legislative provisions plainly doesn't know. Here also the draft commission uses it, pronouncing a sentence to the candidate in soldiers - or is suitable, or - "give".Then, in military unit, on a course of service it appears that the serviceman has heart disease or an ulcer. The price of such service of military registration and enlistment offices how "to dodge", fluctuates from $350 to $2 thousand. Also it depends on the region, number of "intermediaries" and their appetites. Say that in 5 years of work in this sphere quite really to buy the 1-room apartment in Kiev.
Bribes take everything?
Some data testify that in Ukraine, unlike other countries of the former USSR, the system of bribery is most "ordered". Claim that the third part of the businessmen addressing in government bodies, foreknows the size of a bribe which should be paid. Quite often the bribe shares on "main" and "additional". That is from the businessman who has bribed the state official, demand "to pay in addition". Besides, in Ukraine a bribe prefer to take "in parts".
Foreign observers and inhabitants perceive our state as very corrupted country, and claim that in Ukraine there is a corruption crisis. And it is valid, image of Ukraine as the states where there was a situation of extraordinary use of the political power for satisfaction of own needs, and for receiving the benefits by the third parties, I was widely adopted in world mass media.
This image is explained abroad by several models.
First model: Ukraine - the country of the state blackmail. Large-scale and systematic use of blackmail by authorities - means of introduction of political control. Comprehensive state supervision and collecting a compromising evidence allows power structures of Ukraine to use systematically blackmail for ensuring execution of indications of the power.
Second model: Ukraine - the country of oligarchical board. Oligarchs control the state supreme legislative body - the Verkhovna Rada. In the country there is no policy in democratic sense: "to unequal people - the equal rights". After all parties are created not for representation of interests of society, and for acquisition of protection against the law (parliamentary immunity) and protection against the market competition by receiving privileges at the taxation, subsidies and other privileges.
Political parties in Ukraine are created only for protection of interests of groups or clans and for providing to them access to state resources.At the same time, access to resources of the state can be got not only with use political, but also administrative resources - holding, for example, a position in the government or administration.
Communication of business and the power makes profit as to businessmen, and representatives of bureaucracy who receive "gratitude signs" from businessmen. At the peak of corruption play also related, family and friendly relations large role. All know that in policy, as well as in business, people prefer to keep closer to "".
Whether it is possible to get rid of corruption?
World experience shows that it is possible to reach it. So, there are two ways of fight against corruption: "direct" and "indirect". "Straight line" are administrative actions of the power. In the West most successfully them carried out:
the king of Sweden Gustave III in the XVIII century (nowadays Sweden has one of the lowest levels of corruption in the world and already 2-й year in a row occupies one of the first positions);
and Napoleon Bonaparte who considerably lowered corruption level in France, existing after revolution.
Recognition of a problem of high level of this phenomenon in Ukraine as all-Ukrainian phenomenon has to become the first step of introduction of anti-corruption actions for fight against corruption, and already then to develop a package of measures for improvement of the created situation. Strategy of overcoming of corruption crisis in Ukraine has to cover wide circles of representatives of domestic policy and business.
Giving to publicity of the planned actions, with obligatory submission of information in the Ukrainian and world mass media has to become the following step. This step will be positively apprehended both the world community, and own population.
The events held by the power, have to include the following.
In - the first, completion of political reform and ensuring original independence of branches of the power. In - the second, carrying out the administrative reform which basic elements there has to be a reduction of the establishments necessary for decision-making and issue of documents, and also transparency of power structures and freedom of information. Transparency will mean in this case opportunity for any citizen of Ukraine to study any document or the resolution of power structures. In - the third, it is necessary to liquidate the oligarchy power in the country, having destroyed for this purpose a business and policy unification.
Along with "direct" actions, the leadership of Ukraine has to support and "indirect" - freedom of press, words and information; and public organizations. "Good news from Ukraine will appear not from "political strategists" of presidential administration and when independent mass media and journalists will start fulfilling the duties without humiliations, intimidation and fear", - the American senator Ben Kembel from Colorado considers, for example.
However mass media - not the only way of influence on mentality of society. With capitalism emergence in Germany, for example, the period of romanticism ended and considerably the mentality of the nation changed. Ukraine is today in a transition period. The mentality of the present inhabitant of the country isn't similar to mentality of the Soviet person, but it isn't similar and to mentality of the western European.
There is a risk that Ukraine can remain at this level of development and mentality for a long time. Because it is available pronounced difference between declared intentions of the power to construct democratic society on the basis of the market relations and realities of life in the country. And, certainly, ourselves should wean from an addiction to bribe all, beginning from the Zhekovsky plumber or a pasportistka and finishing the highest structures of the power. It is necessary to get used to it still, and will occupy it, probably, not one year.