About the American crimes it is possible to tell - what American businessmen, are that at them and bandits. But today they began to plunder obviously less, preferring the hidden actions. About so to speak, philosophical background of this modern transition from crimes through violence to deception through belief you will be able to learn from article given below.
What purpose of human life?
To become rich. By what means?
Dishonest quicker, honest more long.
Honest, only if differently it is impossible. "
The American national character was built up on idea of work and its result - material success, and such qualities, as energy and ability to generate the new ideas, new methods, ability to overcoming of outdated norms, courage in violation of the standard ban, overcoming of all physical and practical borders, search of new novel ways, courage of the pioneer were for this purpose necessary. The same qualities of national character the reason of a high crime rate in the USA.
"The crime in our country has a functional role, and is considered by society not as the antisocial act and as business some other way, the shortest avenue to wealth", was written by Daniel Bell, the leading sociologist of the country in 60-70-е years, in the book "Crime is the American way of life", the Crime is the American way of life.
The crime exists in all public systems, but its specifics and scope are defined by cultural values dominating in society and the social purposes. The crime in America, at all times, differed from European the scales, a variety and was result of democratic and economic freedoms, huge social dynamics. Society set the only purpose - wealth, the multimillion masses that couldn't but bring participated in fight for it, the most vigorous and capable to desire to break all barriers, to searches of roundabout, roundabout ways.
Laws legal and moral were violated always, and always condemned as degradation of the person, as treachery of sacred norms of life. But, to the middle of 19 centuries, the crime in the opinion of public opinion began to be estimated differently. At this time capitalist society in which the economy began to take the central place in a scale of public values started being formed.
In literature of a pre-capitalistic era the crime was perceived as the individual choice endured by the hero as the tragedy. In 20 eyelid the crime stopped being a choice of the personality, lost tragical lines. Both in life, and in literature, the crime became the everyday social phenomenon, one of ways of the solution of vital problems and, first of all, problems economic.
Theodor Dreiser in the novels - "Titan", "Genius", "Financier", shows the hero, Kaupervuda who crosses all laws ethical, moral legal, but all this is completely justified by "Business". The honest way is long and ineffective.
"Society shares on the slaves living by the principles of slavish morals, and those who is capable to cross morals - is those who is capable to create riches and is able to dominate", - Dreiser in 1913, - "Writes destiny weak defeat. Unlike strong they are afraid of public opinion. They are too cowardly to run risks to take something others. They call criminals of those who looks for the authorities and riches. Millionaires, gangsters and swindlers achieve success because fight and therefore win".
Dreiser's statement can seem exaggeration, Dreiser - the writer, and literature always uses exaggeration as professional reception, but about it, almost in the same expressions, the person of the practice who has finished only four classes of church school, not read in the life of any book speaks, to Luigi (Lucky) Luchiano, the boss of bosses of a mafia 30-x - 40-x years, - "Everyone would like to take away something from others, only the majority doesn't have enough courage. We, at the Mafia, have it".
The classic of literature and "titan" of the American underworld, also as well as Raskolnikov of Dostoyevsky, divide the world into heroes and "creatures shivering". If to follow Dostoyevsky's idea that it is impossible to spill "a teardrop of the child", then it is necessary to cancel Progress. On million "teardrops" the world of a materialistic civilization is under construction.
"The country provides you a choice - either you plunder, or you plunder", Barnum, the founder of the most known circus in America and exhibitions of wonders of the world spoke. Barnum's other well-known phrase - "Gawks are born every minute" (There's a sucker born every minute) - has today not smaller value, than 100 years ago when it was said. You either "sucker" - the blunderer or "swindler", "sharpie" - sharp, resourceful, the one who under way cuts soles, are capable to cheat all.
Turchaninov, the colonel of the General Staff of the Russian army, immigrating to America in 1856, become the brigade general in North army in the years of Civil war, - "Smart guy, on - to ours the trickster, the rascal, here the great word. Be the person the greatest villain, in any class of estate if it didn't get on the gallows, it that and respectable. Him look after, his opinion the first in everything, its judgments and a sentence are trusted more, than by bibles".
The concept of deception and manipulations is cornerstone of culture of market society. As Cicero spoke still, - "The market is a calling of those who buys to resell more expensively, and they aren't able to do it without impudent and impudent deception. " Engels called economy a form of legal deception.
In feudal society of wealth were got by violence, the market democracy offered more civilized forms - the deception constructed on belief.
"All life of market society is constructed on a trust gain in business, political and individual life. The success in all social spheres is won only by those who possesses ability to convince, ability to sell the goods and the ideas. " Sociologist James Kombs.
The main instrument of belief - language, and it reflects a priority of these or those qualities of human relations in this culture, it is often simple in number of used words.
In the American option of English there are more terms for designation of various types of deceivers and methods of deception, than in other languages of the world., - frauds, charlatans, deceivers, dissemblers, tricksters, swindlers, mountebanks, impostors, hoaxers, fixers, cheats, pretenders, cynics, hypocrites, hoodwinkers, four flushers, bunk, baloney, buncombe, sham, shilling, bamboozle, him hamming, chisel, welsh, snake oil, bluffing, a bum steer, rook, flummox, selling a bill of goods, the put on, a raw deal, diddling, swindling, the snow job, the come on, the gambit, the royal shaft, the set up, being fleeced, getting burned, the ream job, conning.
The majority of these terms aren't translated, they reflect specifics of the business and human relations, characteristic only for the American culture, and the width of terminology speaks about degree of prevalence and refinement of deception.
Harry Linberg in the work of "The Confidence Man in American literature", "The swindler in the American literature", shows that the American culture created a specific form of genius - genius of the deceiver.
This social type sees society as concourse of silly persons (suckers) whom it can convince of the care of their wellbeing and, thus, for someone else's account to create wellbeing own.
On the one hand, what reasonable person will act against own interests, on the other hand, in everyone the person exists desire to trust. We not always trust own feelings and belief, and are ready to trust what belief more logically and are emotionally more intensive, than ours. The manipulator not necessarily uses open deception, more often it uses logic of proofs and emotional pressure.
In the first half of the XX century equipment of manipulation only the thin segment of the population, businessmen, capitalists, financiers owned. In the second half of the XX century, with involvement of masses in economic process, equipment of manipulations all social groups began to seize. All, to some extent, became businessmen, capitalists, financiers - speculate on the Stock Exchange, invest spare money in businesses, participate in various forms of business relations, and in them the most important is ability to convince, ability to buy cheaper, to sell more expensively. It is natural that in the atmosphere of the market society "Confidence man", the swindler, turned into dominating social type.
In a public scale of prestige, the swindlers who have achieved considerable success by smart deception, traditionally took very high places.Ability to sell goods which anybody in senses won't buy, ability to sell everything, even it is impossible what to sell, demands active creativity.
Sales, in broad social sense, demand a sophisticated ingenuity, and qualities сэйлзмена - the manipulator, are most respected in society. Not without reason, in the Greek mythology, the patron of creative professions, Mercury, was god of all arts, including trade and theft.
America always was the country of creative approach to all problems, always looked for and found new, unknown ways and, first of all, in creation of riches, not without reason it called the country of unlimited opportunities, "land of unlimited opportunity".
According to the remark of the sociologist Emil Durkhaym if opportunities are boundless if "Sky is the limit", a limit - only heavens, and restrictions, practical and moral barriers can be broken.
The specific past of America, civilization it was created in the conditions of the primitive nature, the first colonists were surrounded by the wild woods, they were attacked by wild animals and natives, created characteristic approach to the solution of problems - the shortest and simplest way is looked for. The gain of the new continent demanded momentary decisions, a practicality in achievement of the purpose.
Surrounded with the primitive nature, the American colonist had to forget about morals, in fight against the nature the moralist didn't survive. The morals - result of development of a civilization, and out of a civilization are inapplicable. The act is correct when it conducts to a survival, and is wrong when threatens life, on moral reminiscences it wasn't simple time.
Capitalism development, on the one hand, created the new world of a branched civilization resisting to the nature in the material embodiment and, at the same time, returned human society to those forms of the relations which existed in the nature - fight for a survival which wins against the strongest. Conditions of competitive fight demanded creative approach and instant decisions, criminal laws and laws of morals complicated a way to achievement of the purpose, therefore a crime as the instrument of business process, became organic line of new society.
Henry Thoreau: "Compelled to rely only on itself, the American defines the freedom, as independence of the law and traditions. The American adopts the law when it on its party, and rejects if it against. Only he decides that is fair and that isn't present."
Economic freedom which was provided to masses by democratic capitalism, opened all locks for creative energy of the people, and this energy will sweep away all barriers getting in the way, outdated traditions and moral standards on the way. It is fight of all against all, and in it those who is capable to find the shortest way to success win, is capable to break rules of the game, games with a high risk level.
Crime explosion in Post-Soviet Russia when there were unknown opportunities for individual business is characteristic. Those who had criminal experience, experience of acquisition of riches in the conditions of high risk became the first Russian businessmen. The criminal world was better adapted for business game, than the main population accustomed by the Soviet power to economic and social passivity.
In stable economy legal business resorts to violation of the law only in extreme cases. In the absence of stability as it happened to emergence of the free market in the former Soviet Union, in the conditions of collapsing political and economic structure, individual business chose the simplest way to achievement of the purpose - ignoring of all laws.
Deception, fraud and murders turned in Russia into the main means of concentration of riches, having bared the basic principles of business in the conditions of the competition. And it is natural that criminals, the most active part of the population, became vanguard of development of capitalism in Russia, business demands ability to risk. Business without risk can exist only in the stiffened bureaucratic, state forms, and is, as a rule, a little effective.
In the today's West of a crime in economy don't look so terribly as in Russia, the bureaucratized corporations developed multistage system of concealment of the mechanism of economic manipulations, he isn't visible behind the difficult civilized rituals, the market relations created during two centuries.
"Reminders of the press on lawless operations in Russia are infinite. But economic crimes in Russia look as naive provincialism, in comparison with the perfected stylistics of huge fraud of the Western commercial world.... In it the most evident advantage of the western civilization in front of Russia. The western person receives sufficient training in business rationalization, and respect for the law. It won't inflate someone on trifles. Deception on trifles isn't productive.The western businessman before making illegal operation, consults to the lawyer, and, generally tries to keep in limits of the law which, by means of the skilled lawyer, always works in its advantage. Russians have no centuries-old practice of business. Therefore the Russian businessman, making just the same illegal operation, as well as his western colleague, does it nonprofessionally, i.e. is rough and vulgar. It isn't anxious even with to hide traces, and is rather short-sighted and rather stupid to deceive even where in it there is no absolute necessity. Russian doesn't have that virtuosity, internal discipline and that experience of deception of many centuries which the western businessman has. The Russian acts impulsively, spontaneously, on - barbarous. Tendency to crimes at Russians is no more, and is more obvious. It is carried out in the most unpretentious and barefaced uncivilized forms, and it can't but cause a furious protest in the West. Without being able to carry a difficult fancy dress of decency over which the West worked for eyelids, Russian, in the naive ignorance, open for a public inspection the mechanism of business. " Sociologist Filip Slater.
In 90-ые years of the XX century Russia repeated the American way. In the USA, in a 19-ohm century, in an initial stage of development of industrial economy, a frank mutual cheating in business, without decency masquerade, also was the standard rule. The bureaucratic structure of business was just created, the economic legislation didn't exist that allowed to use any forms of creative approach therefore deception, in the environment of business elite, was frank and impudent.
John Pirpoynt Morgan, the founder of the American banking system knowing, more than someone another, psychology of people of business, spoke, - "I am respectful to people, to all without exception, but as for people of business, in their company I wouldn't leave the wrist watch without supervision. "
The economic elite of the country at the time of Morgan wasn't numerous and made no more than several tens of thousands. During a post-industrial era, masses were involved in business process as its active participants, and violation of laws became the mass phenomenon.
Everyone looks for a short way, opportunity to bypass the law in the field of activity is increases efficiency of any business.Legal laws and laws of morals constrain dynamics of development, and business, in search of the shortest road, makes a detour of rules, laws and morals. The sociologist James Komb sees the American culture of business, as "Culture of deception", such is the name of its book. In his opinion, national capitalism couldn't but lead to promoting of receptions and equipment of business, earlier characteristic only for a narrow circle of "titans", "financiers" and "geniuses", - "mutual manipulation and deception became ethical and procedural standard of our culture".
The sociology, as well as literature, uses generalizations, often exaggerates more effectively to prove the theses. But here an example from practice of the business world:
Jimmy Sullivan, the member of management of New - York department of the school education, stolen from city treasury millions, in court brought the following argument into the justification, - "Everyone steals from someone, and it not violation of the rule is a rule. These are 95%. Someone steals a little, someone is more. However, we always were the nation where gangsters and swindlers were praised to skies. It is part of the American dream. "
The tradition of deception, manipulations and fraud, creative approach to the solution of problems was characteristic of the American life from first years of existence of the British colonies.
The captain Samuel Argall appointed vice-the governor of the Virzhinsky colony in 1616 was the first known swindler in the history of America. In two years it took everything that belonged to a community, and ran away, having left from all communal wealth six goats. Everything that it was possible to take out, it shipped on the ship, and in England sold with big benefit. Having paid services of lawyers by part of the production, it could not only leave from court, but, having distributed bribes to the necessary people, was entitled the peer for the merits in development of new territories in America, and was appointed the representative of the British crown in Council of the American Colonies.
John Hankok, the organizer of the Boston tea drinking with whom the American revolution began, saved up huge riches, delivering to colonies of illicit goods.
Founders of the American constitution, Robert Morris and James Wilson, entering structure of the Constitutional court consisting of nine people, participated in huge swindle on sale of the nonexistent land plots.
Authorities always were active participants of business process.
In 1789 the financier Henry Bikman paid municipality of New - York 25 pounds sterling for 23 miles of the territory, all west bank of the island Manhattan. Then this site of the public earth, having appeared on open sale, I could cost 5.000 pounds sterling. What size of the bribe given to municipal officials was, remained to unknown. One of streets Wal - Strita bears today a name of the financier Bikman, Beekman Street.
The financial genius and the patriot of America, Cornelius Vanderbilt, during Civil war sold to the North some tens vessels which have been written off for demolition. He bought them before war, having a presentiment of possible demand in case of the beginning of the military conflict. Because the government was in great need in increase in the navy, and at construction of the new ships there was no time, Vanderbilt sold old vessels at the price new, and, when checking their road performance, they sank. It is natural that it couldn't conclude this bargain without the aid of friends in the purchasing commission of the Congress.
Tammani Hall, - the name of group of politicians and the businessmen, buying and selling appointments to the public positions, carrying out the laws favorable to only big business, in New - York the beginnings 20-го centuries. Tammani Hall in the American history became a symbol of a limit of political corruption. The head Tammani Hall, the Boss Plunkett, said the historical phrase, - "When I see the opened opportunities, I use them. ", (I've seen my opportunities, and I took them! ). Mr. Plunkett, having left from a post, nevertheless, I remained in memory national as the expert, the master of political and economic game.
The Scandinavian playwright Knut Hamsun who has visited the USA approximately at the same time, - "Watches society at large swindles with sympathy and is frequent with admiration. Ability of deception in vast scales in the opinion of public looks as expression of an ingenuity, characteristic feature of the Yankee, and the press with affection describes technical details of swindle and admires the accuracy, a yuvelirnost of work of swindlers. "
Charles Dickens, after the travel across the United States, wrote to the "The American notes" in 1842,-. "At them in honor ability dexterously to fix affairs... and it allows any cheats who should have been hitched up on the gallows, to keep up head, on an equal basis with decent people.I had to have more than once such conversation, - "Well unless it isn't shameful that the so-and-so makes the fortune the most disgraceful way, and his fellow citizens suffer and encourage it, despite all crimes committed by it. After all it dishonors society! Yes, sir. He is the recognized liar! Yes, sir. Absolutely impudent, low, dissolute person! Yes, sir. For God's sake, for what you then respect it? Whether you see the sir, he is a trickster, shrewd, smart guy. "
Shrewd, smart guy of today also is held in general respect and as at the time of Dickens dominates in public life.
1975. Election campaign in Miami. The candidate for president, Jimmy Carter, addresses on a banquet representatives of big business. The entrance ticket - $1,000. The case explains the main slogan of the election program - the honest government. Near it on a podium sit - the mayor of Miami who has just stayed term for evasion from taxes, two senators from the State of Florida, at this moment being under court for pushing through of the law on privileges, in spheres representing their personal business interests, the head of one of the ministries, being under court for receiving a bribe, and 3 representatives of other ministries accused of plunder of public funds.
During Clinton's presidency, in 1994, the treasurer of the USA, Catalina Billarando, it was sentenced to four-months imprisonment for evasion of taxes.
The uncountable scandals connected with deception and fraud, on pages of the American press often look as violation of the standard rules, as an aberration. But manipulations and swindles are an organic, integral part of business game.
When in 1938, deception and manipulation with the prices in delivery of aviation mail reached such sizes that the government was compelled to close all avias - the campaigns involved in swindle, the chairman of the Chamber of commerce of the USA Willie Rogers, made the following statement - "If we close any industries in connection with fraud and swindles, we will have to stop all national economy".
But scandals in the sphere of policy and big business are characteristic not only for America, they happen to invariable constancy and in the European countries. Difference in scope, scale. Scales are specifics of the New World, it is visible in the nature of the United States, in its architecture and also in scope of crime.
In 1949 the meeting of representatives of occupational armies in Germany took place. One question - a robbery of warehouses in armies of allies was on the agenda. The American soldiers and officers of all ranks were the main participants of robberies, nevertheless, the American representatives were offended by that fact that blame is laid only on the military personnel of the USA, having reminded that steal not only Americans, but also French and British.
The representative of France gave the following argument seeming incontestable, - "That the French soldier will steal? The block or two cigarettes (cigarettes in post-war Europe were used as a currency form). What will the American soldier steal? It will hijack the whole train, will involve in the business not only soldiers, but also officers, will bribe train crew, will charter tens trucks, will create a distribution network".
"It any more theft, and the big, well organized business", the representative of the American occupational armies answered it.
Post-war America turned into the economic leader of the Western world and the leader in all types of crime of all classes of the American society. Together with growth of economy the crime grew also. Since the beginning 50-ых years the national product per capita increased three times. For the same 50 years the crime in economy increased by 5 times.
People are afraid of individual crime, than crime organized more. The robbery, on the street or in the house, with its suddenness and concreteness, is stamped on the memory. The robbery of millions within many years banks, insurance campaigns, corporations, or as a result of exchange frauds, passes without any dramatic nature though the effect and the sizes of the organized robbery are incomparable with small, in terms of money, mugging.
You can lose the money, any part of the property as a result of a robbery, but you won't lose everything that you saved up during life. The organized robbery which is carried out by corporations, will turn you into the beggar.
In difference from individual crime, crimes of corporations are committed by the organization. It is accepted to call crimes of corporations "white-collar crime". The term as though assumes that crimes are committed by certain employees of corporations.
But the white-collar crime differs from individual, street, the huge sums which it manipulates, and it is possible only when using those human and technological resources which the organization can provide only. The individual initiative can bring only remains. Therefore the correct term what is applied after the relation to a mafia - "organized crime". Not without reason, in the everyday speech, large corporations call - a mafia of oil industry workers, a mafia of doctors, a trade-union mafia.
Grandiose swindles of the last decades made world famous names of financiers Ivan Boyevski, Michael Milken, Charles Kittinga. Before their arrest the American press presented these names as models of scientific management, called them financial geniuses, titans of Big Business, millions admired them. They, really, were talented organizers of operation of the huge office of corporations, and thousands ordinary workers participated in carrying out huge swindles, as made possible a public robbery in grandiose scales.
When in Michael Milken's court asked why he deceived not only million investors, but also the closest friends, he answered, - "If I don't make money on the friends on whom I will do them". For the true businessman not only anonymous public, but also his relatives and friends, also means of enrichment. From it it is impossible to expect any loyalty in relation to specific people - it truly serves only to Business.
Milken's income in 1986 - 296 million. In 1987 its earnings made 550 million. As a result of Milken's swindles of one hundred thousands lost the savings, many lost work. Michael Milken got prison penal for the illegal manipulations at the exchange, was condemned as well by public opinion. In the period of trial of Michael Milken there was popular an ironical song:
I blew, in all blew
And probably you in anger.
And I am glad as a fox in others shed.
Wal - the Street my house native
And you likely sold the.
Students of business school at university of the State of Pennsylvania composed, in the same occasion, a song - a draznilka:
I swindle, I swindle, I swindle
Also it is proud I shout as a rooster.
You lost, and I got
You have nothing to live
And me to spit, I will joke.
After the university termination students of business school of Pennsylvanian university will start working in large corporations, and, naturally, will leave the youthful maximalism. The logic of work of corporations will compel them to obey to the general rules of the game. At many universities the obligatory program includes "a course of ethics of business", but whether it is possible to teach a wolf to feed on vegetables.
As the author of the sensational book "Why We Behave as Americans" writes, - "If any naive representative of the corporate nomenclature is honest in a literal sense, it inevitably will appear behind gate. "
The ordinary employees of corporation involved in frauds of the campaign, participating in deception and manipulations of the employer, accept them as inevitability, to protest against immoral tactics of campaign means to be thrown out for gate and to appear in the black list, all doors of other corporations will be closed. Who wants to be a hero? Even close people and friends call your act idiocy. And, really, don't consider itself it is better than others, be as all - after all it is a natural form of business, don't try to remake the world. "
As professor of history of the American university in Washington writes, Michael Kazin, - "Today when the majority of employees of corporations are holders of actions of the employers, and, to some extent, are involved in frauds of the campaigns, all have an immunity to universal deception. Our economy becomes more and more democratized, the most part of the population takes active part in it. Everyone, owning even the minimum quantity of actions, and shareholders today more than 60 million, feel like the participant of gambling, in which frauds at a card table obligatory part of process. "
Certainly, it is possible to create own business and to try to be in it in it honest, but the morals are good for the relations with close people, and in business, by definition, there are only morals of success.
In the last decade of swindle get the increasing scale - the economy grows, with its growth opportunities for frauds increase also. But for their carrying out it is necessary to certify public of purity and respectability of corporation, it is necessary to create base of trust, also, as it is done by any ordinary "conman", the swindler.
Leaders have economy high public prestige - they serve society, creating riches, and absence of morals, as well as at the pickpocket, a difference only in high professionalism and quantity of pockets into which they get.
22 largest corporations of the country, among them - Enron, by Xerox, Haliburton, Aol, Time Warner, Kmart, WorldCom were over the last 5 years prosecuted. Their heads in two years (1999-2001), got paid in total amount of 15 billion dollars while actions of their campaigns lost 500 billion cost. It is the sum which was lost by investors, shareholders and consumers.
Except economic crimes there is also other sphere of business in which corporations gain huge income - refusal of observance of laws on labor protection and health of consumers. This sort of crimes doesn't belong to the category of crimes criminal, they are qualified as violation of civil laws.
If the employer obliges the worker to function in conditions in which chemicals are used life-threatening and health, in case of refusal from work he will be dismissed, and in case of acceptance of conditions will die, the employer isn't considered the murderer, and isn't subject to criminal prosecution. 25 thousand people perish every year at plants as a result of use of the defective equipment and violation of laws on labor protection.
The bigger number of victims is considerable consumers of substandard goods make. Pharmaceutical industry - the huge industry bringing 200 billions a year. On its account of one thousand human tragedies - 100 thousand cases of defects of newborns at those mothers who took the Benedictin medicine, reducing nausea at women in labor. Tablets for a dream, Halston, brought campaigns of Upjohn of 240 million and more than 200 thousand patients accepting Halston, had problems with memory, and tested various forms of paranoid behavior and aspiration to suicide.
But records were set up traditionally by automotive industry. One of the most known facts - history of the fordovsky Pinto model. More than 500 buyers of this model burned down in the cars - result of constructive defect of a gasoline tank. Managers of campaign could remove model from sales and change a gasoline tank design. But "Pinto" continued to be advertized widely, as the most successful model of the last time.
The internal document of campaign "General Motors" of 1989, - "In a design of a petrol tank of cars of campaign led defect to 500 deadly outcomes at collision. Compensation made 200,000 dollars on a family of victims. Number of cars of campaign for all country 41 million. Having divided total amount of compensation into number of cars, expenses of the company on each incident are expressed in $2.5. Correction of defect will cost campaigns almost four times more - $8.5 for each car".
As the railway magnate Cornelius Vanderbilt at the end of 19-го said centuries, after press charges that its corporation eliminates competitors, arranging on their lines train crashes with a large number of loss of human life, - "We in this business at all to serve society, we in it because it brings big money. "
In those kind, old times business was окровенен in definition of the tasks, presently large corporations are compelled to mask the true purposes the slogan of service to public interests.
Violation of the law the most productive practice of creation of wealth, and business widely uses all opportunities of this richest resource. Indignation of public, about it, only a tribute to emotions, in the vital practice everyone conforms to the same rules by which there lives Big business. The ordinary worker has the same code of norms, as at corporation for which it works. At corporation isn't present, and can't be, responsibility before all society, it isn't present and the worker has corporations. The worker doesn't bear any social responsibility, he first of all the professional, for it exists only responsibility for good reason which it does.
In the movie "The Bridge through the River Kvay", the captain Nicholson, the military engineer, the high-class professional concluded in Japanese camp for English prisoners of war, with pride carries out the task set for it Japanese to build the bridge in the impassable jungle, and carries out that seems impracticable.
For business it doesn't spare neither, nor fatally emaciated English soldiers. The bridge is built. Through it Japanese will throw military divisions and equipment, and will destroy outposts of English army, before bridge existence being for Japanese the unattainable.
The history of the captain Nicholson is a history of the true professional, but as it occurs in extreme conditions, impression shocking.In normal conditions, this position doesn't cause condemnation.
The hero of the movie "Risky Business", Risky business of which Cruz plays, it is also possible to call the professional, the beginning professional, he is the son of the wealthy parents, dreaming that their son will arrive in business school of Princeton university. The hero of Cruz while parents left for holiday, suits in the house a brothel for pupils of school at which itself studies, and carries out titanic work on creation of new business - sexual service, and works as the true professional. Its enterprise is extremely successful thanks to research of inquiries of the market, features of the consumer and accounts department details.
The representative of Princeton university appearing in the house of parents of Cruz to hold testing of the candidate for study at prestigious business school, finds the entrant in the course of business activity, and its efficiency so impresses the recruiter that it, without any doubts, hands over to the beginning businessman the document on enrollment of students.
In Cruz's other movie, "Firm", the hero, the graduate of law school, starts working in the lawyer office, serving mafia. The firm helps mafia bosses to launder dirty money. As one of heads of firm, the mentor Kruiza, - "tells being a tax lawyer has nothing to do with the law it's a game. " - the lawyer has nothing in common with the law is a gambling. Any business is a game, and in game there are only rules, the morals belong to other category, say, to philanthropy which, however, also is big business.
Probably, the movie reflects modern falling of morals, but the morals were at the same level and 100 years ago. The advertisement of the lawyer in the Arizonian newspaper of the end 19-го centuries, - "If you under court or judge someone, I am the person who will help you. If extortion, a robbery, an intended arson are registered for you - behind my back you have nothing to be afraid. I seldom lose. From eleven murderers I managed to acquit nine. You come a bit earlier, and you will avoid expectation in turn. "
Advertizing of the lawyer 19-го centuries today looks a funny thing, for one and a half centuries lawyers learned a civilized form of customer acquisition, the frank cynicism is condemned today, it is unprofitable, and, at the same time, there is a gradual return to the most cynical forms of deception in all society.As the lawyers finding openings in the legislation for the clients, - "Tell it, of course, immorally, but is quite lawful".
The lowest classes feeling deceived, after all the richness of elite is created them minimum by a remunerative work, also consider itself in the right to break the law, indulgent to the rich. The lowest classes, breaking the law, can tell, - "it certainly is illegal, but quite morally. " Thus, all classes have justifications, breaking the law, nobody trusts in rules of a fair play.
However, corporations receive, thanks to the creative approach to the law, hundreds billions dollars, and not creative, direct, individual violation of the law about the country as a whole, brings, according to 2000, no more than 6 billions.
The facts about business practice of big business become known only at the time of juicy scandals, and then disappear from pages of the press and screens of TVs. But about individual crimes of media report daily, on the first pages of newspapers, the television devotes them the most part of information transfers.
The statistics of street crimes is carried out constantly, and it shows scales of crime in which the USA is in the lead among other industrial countries. Number of robberies per capita in America in 5 times more than in Europe. The number of the killed per capita in the United States in 2000 was in 10 times more, than in England.
There is a widespread opinion that the most part of crimes is made by new immigrants and it, in many respects, is confirmed by statistics.
"It is considered to be that new immigrants bring a crime wave from the countries in the New World. But the most part of immigrants were law-abiding in the countries. If they break laws, that, generally thanks to the general living conditions and the moral atmosphere of the new country. Lawlessness was and there is the most characteristic quality of the American life. " John Adams Truslou, the descendant of a family Adams who has given to the country of two presidents and several outstanding political leaders of the country.
This regularity the criminologist Syuzerlend in 30-е celebrated also years.
Investigating the crime reasons in Honolulu, he found out that the Japanese community leading closed life in the ethnic ghetto, has the lowest crime rate. Where Japanese lived and worked, having mixed up with the main population, level of crimes was highest.
Since the middle 19-го centuries till today, America absorbed 54 million immigrants. The most successful among them were those ethnic groups which were capable to create the organizations - labor unions, the unions of businessmen and mafia "families". Mafia groups - Italians, Irish, Jews, and later the Vietnamese, Chinese, Dominican and Mexican mafias, differed from all other, legal associations of immigrants, that great opportunities for economic growth gave to immigrants considerably.
Immigrants, being object of ruthless operation and the subject of mistrust and humiliations from aboriginals of the country, saw in the American laws legalizing violation of their civil rights, the enemy, and in a mafia of the defender. Immigrants preferred the arbitration court of godfathers - godfathers to official American court.
The mafia, instead of callous and often biased to immigrants of the American court and police, offered "family approach". The mafia distributed workplaces, and in, some cases, organized the help sick and poor. It wasn't philanthropy. The mafia created, thus, mass support in the immigrant ghettoes.
The immigrant was alone deprived of opportunity to use advantages of the American democracy - a personal liberty, high social mobility and weakness of the state. The mafia could take effectively advantages of the free market and civil liberties because possessed force and influence - it was the organization, in whose hands huge money, the most powerful instrument of business accumulated. The legal organizations of immigrants were, as a rule, ineffective - they existed for the scanty sums in the form of membership dues.
For immigrant mafias large corporations were models of business, using the same organizational receptions in wealth accumulation, they created influential criminal syndicates with the income in hundreds millions dollars.
In the movie "Godfather", the head of the Italian Mafia, Karleone, explains to the colleagues that the Mafia (its Italian name Cosa nostra - our Business), it not gang of street pilferers is a business in the sphere of service which the consumer can't receive via legal channels. The public wants sex the free access to which is blocked by the law. She will receive it.Instant receiving monetary loans, passing long bureaucratic procedure of bank, certainly, under huge percent. Return of debts by a fist and the gun, passing long-term and often ineffectual trials.
There is a requirement to move away the enemy, the competitor, the undesirable witness. Only at us the consumer can receive everything that he can't receive on lawful channels.
Business of a family of Karleone - business specific. But the Italian immigrants, as well as many other ethnic minority, weren't allowed to business legal, more precisely, to those spheres of business where the lawful way makes big money. Management of corporation of Karleone analyzes efficiency and efficiency of investments of capital and labor, and does it with the same care and professionalism, as well as any other corporation.
However, at the Mafia other code of honor and a bit different rules of the game, than in lawful business. But game by the standard rules isn't characteristic for all society as a whole, since the time of Henry Thoreau, and to this day, - "The American adopts the law when it on its party, and rejects if it against. Only he decides that is fair and that isn't present. "
"Godfather" shows the Italian families running from the country from violence, corruption and operation. They, in the country, had no opportunities to rise from a social bottom as the motionless social structure of Italy 19-го assigned centuries all privileges to a class of tapes - lords, including and the Sicilian mafia protecting interests of large landowners.
In the new country in spite of the fact that immigrants get on the same social bottom, they, nevertheless, have chances to use opportunities of freedom of individual business and the most vigorous, ambitious, and capable to take the risk, choose criminal forms of business because they provide the shortest way to economic success.
In the Middle Ages the lowest classes saw in robbers, as, for example, in Robin Goode, force, in any degree restoring social justice. Organized crime in America at all doesn't consider itself as the organization of fighters for justice. Also, as well as other business corporations, they participate in competitive fight, hazardous and often dangerous game against high rates. In fight for success, for the American Dream.
Before emergence of the movie "Godfather" gangster movies were the only genre in which absence хэппи - this was allowed. The gangster at the end of the movie perished. In it there was a movie didactics - it is impossible to achieve success out of the legalized channels. However, life didn't confirm this truth.
The huge economic success of a mafia during the Prohibition, and after its cancellation control of certain spheres of the industry - transportations, construction, cleaning of garbage and the legalized gamblings, in post-war time turned the Mafia into one of the largest corporations of the country.
The success of the Mafia, economic success of organized crime, was, in many respects, confirmation of that in the conditions of the competition only the organization, the corporation can achieve real, tangible success. Before the certain businessman society puts incalculable barriers, and especially for the immigrant. Only the organization in any sphere of business, be it business legal or criminal, a victory guarantee.
Ability of gangster communities to create difficult organizational structures of business, to find in it new ways, and courage in the conditions of threat of prison term or murder by competitors, can't but cause respect in the American who has been brought up on idea - "Business, business first of all".
Mafiozo is surrounded with a romantic aura - it, despite danger, breaks the law to achieve the same that wanted by all law-abiding citizens of the country - success. In difference from them, he goes towards the aim in conditions of high risk and achieves economic success and wellbeing of the family. And the success and wellbeing of a family also is the fundamental principles of the American life. That doesn't say goodbye - defeat in fight for success and treachery of interests of a family.
Modern mafia groups copy organizational methods of corporations, but in a 19-ohm century, during their creation, process was the return, corporations not only adopted receptions of criminal gangs, but also used them for capture or neutralization of competitors.
The Italian mafia is the most known part of the world of organized crime, but its number, according to FBI, no more than 10,000 people. The number of the individual criminal cases which are storing in information database of the Ministry of Justice, makes 50 million.
Their most part is connected with the crimes using violence, and the violence was widely usable from the moment of the country basis.As the old and eternally new slogan - "Violence as American as the Apple pie", violence the same dish typical for America, as apple pie says.
Historically, aggression of the American a consequence of the Protestant doctrine - idea of fight against the nature, out of and in the person. On the principle of fight of all with all all economic civilization, and wide crime only a consequence of this principle is constructed.
"The gospel of money was a gospel of violence", prayer about money, was a violence prayer, wrote Tokvil about an initial stage of formation of the American industry.
In "Martin Chelzvike" Dickens describes, by his definition, the typical American of an era "gains of new borders", Hannibal Chollop, - "This venerable gentleman carries in pockets of the frock coat some revolvers, and on a belt a huge knife which he tenderly calls "Eviscerator", and the saber, not less gently, "Shchekotun". It is famous for the gallantry. One of episodes of its manifestation was described by local newspapers when Mr. Chollop, with grace inherent in it, a saber pierced an eye to the opponent. "
It was not interrupting war of all with all, people killed each other for the earth, water, mines. Having finished destruction of Indians and having received the earth, cowboys - cattle-farmers and farmers began continuous war to the friend with the friend. It is enough to watch some cowboy's movies to see that huge heat of war of all with all for wealth, in what form it wouldn't be embodied.
Aggression of the period of development of the Wild West was continued subsequently, during growth of the industry and creation of industrial empires, corporations. Owners of the railroads arranged accidents on lines of competitors, owners of plants employed bandits for intimidation of workers and suppression of strikes, labor unions employed other bandits for control of the bandits employed by owners.
The society, which true cult action, legalizes all forms of expression of energy. To create new, it is necessary to destroy old and aggression in this process is necessary.
The violator of the law, the criminal, in the American history was always more popular hero, than statesmen, businessmen or people of arts. It embodied the individual freedom finished to the logical end. Gangsters, killers and serial murderers became iconic figures. It is possible to find the museums devoted to national heroes in many regions of the country, "Halls of glory of outstanding robbers".About their life and activity thousands books are written and hundreds movies are removed.
The American public, in the majority, doesn't know history of the country, doesn't know names of the majority of presidents, not to mention world history, but such names as Billey Kidd, Jesse James, Benny and Clyde, Pretti Boy Floyd, Ma Becker, John Dillindzher, Is scarlet to Kapone, the Moulding - Bukhalter, Bags Moeran, Bagsi Siegel - these names know everything.
Hollywood created hundreds movies about great gangsters, thousands books and researches of their life are devoted to them, multivolume works tell in the most detailed details about their life. Only about one of them, Bill Kidd, more than twenty movies were shot. The legend of the brave, fearless bandit was immortalized. Under the certificate of those who met it, it I was thin the pudge with sloping, woman's shoulders, a decayed teeth, and I looked the full degenerate. What it was in real life has no special value. Billey Kidd, as well as many other bandits of his time, in the beginning 20-го centuries, in the opinion of society were a symbol, a symbol of opposition of the individual to new industrial society where only belonging to the organization, cartel, gives to corporation chances of success.
In real economy of corporation won fight against individual business, but their victory was guaranteed by the atmosphere of the society admiring force and good luck, and seeing violation of the law as business some other way.
The television series "Melrose Place" 90-ых the years, one of the most successful, showed group of the young professionals building the career on deception and using all means, up to extortion, blackmail and murder to achieve the objective. Heroes not only are externally attractive, they are charming in the course of the manipulations. The success is not only the award for dedicated work is a realization of all human talents.
That could shock the viewer as we will tell, the phrase of the hero of Michael Douglas in the movie "Wall Street", the exchange agent who isn't disdaining any means earlier, - "greed is good", greed - is fine, greed moves national economy, today can revolt nobody.
"Our ideal - big money. The ideal gives rise to infinite hordes of criminals and they are true heroes. They have one morals - morals of a victory. They don't trust in any rules, laws, norms therefore they win always.Their success proves a moral superiority of swindlers over crowds of fools trusting in a fair play (fair game). ". R. Mill, classic of the American sociology.
"Today, the social responsibility is completely removed from the certain person - "By If it feels good, do it. " - if you want something, do, "Good guy finish last" - the honest person comes to the finish the last. The one who plays without rules wins only. " Sociologist of Thomas D. Kerr.
Heroes of the today's cinema, the actors presented by a galaxy - Michael Douglas, John Malkovich, Vesli Snayps, James Spyder, don't enter the conflict to society, don't test any moral torments concerning amoralism of system, they simply use those opportunities which society gives.
Fight for freedom in economic activity and for the rights of the personality, lost the appeal, ideals 60-ых years lost the social and moral pathos. The today's press as follows estimated the movie of the sixtieth, telling about the owner of the independent newspaper who, risking the wellbeing and, eventually, life tries to bring to court the head of the local mafia bribed the majority of local politicians and possessing the bigger power, than any businessman or the politician of the city is a history of the conflict of ambitions of the newsdealer and the mafioso. Moral categories, fight of good against the evil, began to be perceived as an anachronism.
If to consider that art reflects the most important for society life questions, the American literature, cinema and television in which the subject of crime takes a dominating place, answers these questions. Not only on a question "What to do? ", but also on a question "How to do? ", but doesn't answer a question of the social reasons of crime. Art, having become show business, sells goods on which there is a huge demand.
Never to the second half of the XX century of a crime took such huge place in public consciousness and culture, but, in the XX century they occupied almost all space in mass media. Crimes - the central theme of newspapers, television, radio. The vast majority of crimes have the same motive - money. Scope of criminal offenses only an iceberg top - they the indicator, widely accepted in society, aspirations to find the shortest ways to success.
More than two million prisoners in the American prisons are losers, those who is incapable of manipulation with others and I will deceive in a law framework. The system provides a huge number of opportunities in this sphere, and it is broad creative base for self-expression, manifestation of individual talent, game in which the winner ego-trips as the active participant of business process.
The mechanic will define to the owner of the car, the doctor, a nonexistent problem in the motor which will make for it the greatest profit. The doctor appoints to the patient, the mechanic, that set of tests unnecessary the patient which will increase his income. The seller of the insurance policy will impose to the client, the plumber, an insurance which covers nothing. And the plumber, for the minimum work in the house of the insurance agent, will tear off from it three skins.
All segments of the population are involved in business game in, all exploit all. In dynamics of transition of bank notes from one hands in others, they appear at the most vigorous, the most impudent, the most flexible in achievement of personal success. They also move economy, increasing its coefficient of action as a whole, in all country.
As wrote George Sand more than hundred years ago, - "The European romantic would hang up mournful lira between coastal willows to pour out damnations on the evil of a civilization. The American can't hold selflessly up to shame the evil from which came force, wealth and independence of its people".
Moral reminiscences of the European about the good and evil don't correspond to the American look, all is moral that brings wealth. "The wealth is justice, the wealth is freedom, the wealth is the power. ", Markus Garvi, the American politician of the beginning of the XX century spoke, expressing firm morals of economic society.