Romanov' murder: last hours lives of a dynasty

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Drunk murderers shot them and pinned up bayonets. Murder of the Russian imperial family shook the world.

Just there was a book where in all details awful last days Romanov' families are described.

At sunset near the remote Lubin station on the Trans-Siberian railway line the train stopped.

It was in the evening on April 29, 1918. The structure from cars of the first class from outside looked quite usually, except for sentries armed cap-á-pie at doors.

In the car the family which has found immortality thanks to the photos in books on stories sat.

Four pale girls in white lacy dresses, with satin ribbons in hair. The frail little boy in матроске.

That was the truth moment for Romanov, the Russian imperial family displaced from a throne by the Soviet revolution. Now they made the last travel. Young and beautiful great princesses - Olga, Tatyana, Maria and Anastasia - sat beside the mother, the haughty queen Aleksandra, the granddaughter queen Victoria. The young tsarevitch Alexey nestled on the father, the former tsar всея Russia to Nikolay Aleksandrovich Romanov. The engine запыхтел, and the train made decisive turn.

The last hopes of those who went by Special train number 8, vanished. The structure went not to Moscow where a family the court or dispatch abroad as Romanov counted, and towards sad landscapes of Ural could wait. Romanov carried to Yekaterinburg which was traditionally one of the centers of prison system of Russia.

There only 78 days later they were shot. Last week from that day exactly 90 years were executed.

With anniversary the publication of the tremendous new book where the chronicle of the last dreadful days of their life is made coincided. On the basis of documents and the attestations of eyewitnesses which have been earlier disregarded, the author with unprecedented details describes the family final.

But how it turned out, what these aristocrats from aristocrats so irreparably lost the high situation?

Nikolay, not differing big political foresight and abilities, badly suited for a role of the monarch.Even growth it didn't leave - in it there were only 5 foots 7 inches. He didn't pay attention to discontent in society that had fatal consequences. The political power it actually препоручил to the wife Aleksandra who was extremely unpopular among the population.

Aleksandra more and more fell under Grigory Rasputin's charm, charismatic "the Saint person" who as she was sure, could rescue her son Alexey who had hemophilia, from fatal bleedings.

In 1917, in the face of becoming ripe political chaos Nikolay considered that it has no other choice except renunciation of a throne "for the sake of Russia".

It made this decision also because hoped thereby to guarantee safety to the family which adored.

In it, as well as in many other, Nikolay showed fatal naivety. Originally imperial family placed under house arrest, and then transported to the small city of Tobolsk where it was surrounded still by large suite - 39 court and servants.

With themselves they brought part of the treasures from the Imperial palace (so in the original. - Editor's note), including albums with the photos, bound in skin, and old wines from court cellars.

As a result new Supreme revolutionary power decided that in the young communistic state such privileges are inadmissible.

Other house, in Yekaterinburg was secretly prepared. It was incomparable with the magnificent summer and Winter Palaces, pirshestvenny halls and magnificent gardens which the imperial family had earlier. Ominously there was already that is the house "The house of special function" was called as a Bolshevist euphemism.

Having descended from the train in Yekaterinburg after the wearisome five-day travel, exhausted Nikolay and his wife, and also their doctor, the maid, the valet and the footman were transferred under the power of local Council.

When their car approached the House of special function, they last time looked round the outside world.

It was on the Holy Week, and on all city the easter peal in orthodox the tserkvakh sounded.

When gate of its new dungeon with a roar slammed, to the tsar abruptly ordered: "The citizen Nikolay Romanov, you can enter". From now on, to great disgust of the queen, for Romanov their status and titles didn't admit.

Gradually imperial family adapted to the new dwelling - to the private house which though resembled the palace a little, nevertheless was considered as one of the most modern in the city as in it there was a toilet with a flushing tank.

Now, covered behind a high wooden fence, with the painted-over windows, the house turned into gloomy prison. With Romanov allocated five rooms connecting among themselves.

Live on character of the daughter of Romanov - it was from 17 to 22 years - missed in the house, and therefore neglected the order not to look out of an open window on the top floor while the sentry didn't make a precautionary shot, aiming Anastasia's tops are slightly higher.

The clothes of young princesses all wore out more strongly. They any more had no white dresses and beautiful hats which they usually wore in the summer in the palace in the Crimea - a heavenly spot on the seashore where air was given to drink by aroma of roses and honeysuckles.

And all the same these cheerful and vigorous girls fascinated the jailers: one of them told that they wouldn't look more beautiful, "even if would be entirely covered with gold and brilliants".

To family allowed to keep bed linen with personal monograms and the imperial coat of arms, and also the graceful porcelain dinner service decorated with a name of Nikolay II.

Aleksandra also brought stocks of the favourite English cologne Brocard, and also колд - cream and snuff salts with a lavender smell.

That were not the only means without which the queen couldn't do. Suffering migraines, serdtsebiyeniye, sleeplessness and an ishialgiya, it fell into incurable dependence on the whole set of drugs.

Long before that period she admitted that "all became impregnated with veronal" - a preparation from group of barbiturates. Besides, from pain at periods it accepted morphine and cocaine.

Subsequently hypotheses expressed that the tsar too was fenced off from reality by narcotic fog. Said that it treated throne loss with childish indifference as smoked hashish mix with a psychotropic grass "a henbane black" - the means registered by a certain Tibetan doctor who was recommended by Rasputin as a stress and sleeplessness medicine.

Life in the House of special function was arranged with a strict ban. Visitors weren't allowed to inhabitants, and they could take the air only in certain time.

Besides, they were allowed to speak only on - Russian - meanwhile the queen liked to communicate with the children in English.

However the queen flatly refused to obey the order on that, going to the bathroom, she every time rang a hand bell.

Everyday life turned into one continuous test for durability. However the family had one all-consuming problem: Alexey's poor health.

Since April 13 - the summer boy suffered from constant bleeding from the knee wound, delivering to it painful pain.

Earlier doctors already warned that from - for diseases Alexey won't live till 16 years, but now there was an impression that he is dying.

The native tired themselves out, being on duty at night at its bed. At last from a foot removed the tire, and the boy started taking out in a garden, but go it couldn't any more.

By the beginning of July the daily routine in the House settled, the schedule became otuplyayushche - predictable.

The family rose in eight mornings. For breakfast gave tea and black bread.

For days on end they displayed solitaires and played cards, the French game безик which especially was pleasant to a family, meanwhile as Alexey played with the toy ship and tin tell-tales.

Their dogs - Ortino, Joy and Jemmy - helping to vanish were big help.

On hour walk in the small - forty steps to length - a garden of the girl and their father went backwards - forward, trying to use opportunity to warm up most.

That was the sad picture: the person once ruling the empire of 8,5 million square miles, had now only only own room and a small badly kept garden.

To pass away evening, the family ate a poor dinner, prayed and read aloud the Bible. They also again played cards, and also embroidered and sewed. Women slowly spent many hours for hiding jewels and pearls that in exile of which they dreamed, it was on what to live under a lining of the dresses.

On June 4 the situation in the House was unexpectedly changed. The authorities were afraid that monarchists prepare for a family escape, and therefore replaced protection. For this decision there was one more reason which shocked the tsar and the queen.

On June 27, when the administration carried out inspection, Maria, the most coquettish and beautiful from great princesses, overtook under compromising circumstances with guard Ivan Skorokhodov.

Before Fast walkers smuggling I brought to the house a pie on birthday of Maria by whom 19 years were executed, and in a boring situation they quickly became friends.

Skorokhodov put in city prison, and Maria, the graceful young woman with light-chestnut hair and naughty blue eyes, was reprimanded by the native. As it is tragic, in recent weeks their lives mother and senior of sisters, Olga, didn't talk to Maria in punishment that it dishonored them.

Outside the house civil war stormed. Ranks of the white army which was at war with Bolsheviks, Czechs - numerous deserters from австро - the Hungarian armies filled up.

White quickly attacked Yekaterinburg. The food in the city was given by cards, typhus and cholera raged.

The atmosphere became more and more vile: 45 local ecclesiastics were killed, and of them put out eyes and cut off languages and ears, and the spoiled bodies threw into the river.

But the spirit of irreality reigned in the House of special function. Weather everything became hotter, and inhabitants of the building fell into any uneasy boredom.

All of them suffered from claustrophobia more. Every evening the tsar and the queen continued to keep diaries though couldn't report in them about big banquets, public affairs or court meetings.

They were pleased only with that fragile Alexey recovered enough to take a bath. "Very much hot, I went to bed early because was awfully tired, heart again hurt", - Aleksandra on Thursday, July 4, 1918 wrote down.

One of security guards described that the tsar looked "melancholically", kept with external tranquillity and advantage, but was lost when thought as if it don't watch.

The tsar looked how children play him, and his tender blue eyes were filled with tears. That to the queen, she was broken. Its delicate features faded, beautiful golden hair turned gray.

The family was accustomed to behave stoically, but her fatal destiny was any more behind mountains. In America Washington Post published hearings as if Romanov are already executed.

The king of Great Britain George V refused the earlier offer to grant Romanov a shelter. In three days prior to execution it, indifferently, was present on a kriketny match at Lord's stadium.

Strictly speaking, at that moment Romanov' destiny lay on scales.The leader of Bolsheviks Vladimir Ilyich Lenin realized that their death will cause indignation of the Kaiser in view of Romanov' relationship with the German royal family.

But advisers warned him that Yekaterinburg, probably, will be soon taken by Czechs and the imperial family can become the most powerful tool in fight against communistic ideology.

Deeply devout queen wrote to friends about herself and the family: "Mentally we are going to enter the Kingdom of Heaven".

In the House of special function in the magazine of guard I was, as well as throughout many previous days, record is made: "All usually". But already there was an ominous preparation for Romanov' "elimination" and preservation of these actions declared by the state secret, under a strict secret.

Nearby found mine which was good as a burial place, and at there is nobody the doctor demanded to provide 400 ounces of sulfuric acid for ph.


Tuesday began July 16 for Romanov without special incidents, but protection already made the last preparations for execution: I assembled the weapon necessary for implementation of a task, and also I ordered in economy of a local female monastery of 50 eggs to gain strength.

This day one of laundresses observed how 17 - summer Anastasia secretly put out the tongue at the commander of rasstrelny team Yakov Yurovsky.

There are no certificates that children knew about destiny expecting them, but two of security guards became nervous and declared that at girls won't shoot. These security guards sent.

At 3 o'clock in the afternoon the family last time walked on a badly kept garden.

After an evening prayer Romanov went to bed. In the middle of night them woke and reported that the White army comes nearer and the house shelling is possible.

To them ordered to go down for the sake of their own safety. The tsar immediately got up, women put on the dresses with the jewelry sewn up under a lining and pearls - so they agreed on a case of possibility of escape or sudden departure earlier.

Soon they left bedrooms, "everything is accurate and tidily dressed" as one of security guards noticed. In 2:15 mornings on July 17 them took away in a cellar.

Eyewitnesses heard how the tsar turned back to daughters and soothingly told them: "Well, we from here will get out". Some consider this phrase as the proof that he was the real Saint martyr - completely realized, what horror waits for them ahead.

Anastasia bore on Jemmy's hands, a little Pekinese of the sister Tatyana. Them entered into the storeroom shined with one electric bulb without the lamp shade.

Windows were driven in by boards. Aleksandra, true to herself, complained that there are no chairs.

Then a family and their servants built in a row, as if for the last ominous official photo.

Them left alone on half an hour while murderers drank vodka.

Having returned to the room, one of security guards read the statement - the death sentence to a family.

On faces full bewilderment was expressed. Romanov crossed. One of security guards approached to the tsar and shot at an emphasis to it in a breast. When the body of the tsar was tumbled down on a floor, opened fire and other security guards. Being drunk they missed. So, to the queen the bullet scratched a skull at the left.

Near it poor lame Alexey, in view of a mutilation not capable to move, sat, having frozen with horror. It pepelno - the pale face was splashed with blood of the father.

Groans and sobbings of people on a floor testified that executioners coped with the work incompetently. But most of all children suffered.

Any of daughters Romanov didn't die fast or painless death. Maria got a bullet in a hip and lay, bleeding profusely, didn't die yet of chipped wounds in a torso.

Her sisters as a result finished off 8-inch bayonets: Olga was wounded in a jaw, and Tatyana got a bullet in a nape when tried to run.

It was supposed that execution will be fast and accurate, but instead any orgy of murders began. All koshmarnost of the events was hidden by only dense clouds of a powder smoke.

The last from women Anastasia died. The drunk security guard rushed on it as an animal, trying to pierce with it a breast a bayonet.

At last, the commander, Yakov Yurovsky, put the revolver to her head and shot.

Alexey, small prestolonaslednik survived only. Its underwear in which jewelry were sewn up, served as a bullet-proof vest. Yurovsky shot at the head of the boy from "colt", and the child was tumbled down on a body of the father.

To kill Romanov and their servants, 20 feverous minutes were required. Then Yurovsky's people began to panic. Reeling, they left a cellar, choking and coughing.

When one of them which were shivering and taken aback, went outside, in a night cool, him pulled out.

Meanwhile above in the House of Joy of special function, Alexey's spaniel, barked, having pricked up ears, expecting return of the young owner.

Helen Rappaport's book "Yekaterinburg: last days Romanov" (Ekaterinburg: The Last Days Of The Romanovs, by Helen Rappaport) left in Hutchinson publishing house.


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