The spy who helped to construct AvtoVAZ

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In 1950-1970-x years the partner of KGB of the USSR - to the Head Department of Investigation (HDI) of the German Democratic Republic - managed инфильтрировать in directive bodies of Germany of one hundred agents and officers - recruiters. Günter Guillaume and his wife Kristel, managed to get into an environment of the chancellor Willie Brandt (a real name Herbert Karl Fram) were one of the most dexterous and successful officers of GUR operating in the Federal Republic.


1955. On the night of Christmas in the apartment of the burgomaster of the Western Berlin Willie Brandt rang out (in which already time! ) phone. Brandt, not including a night lamp not to wake the young wife who has slept nearby, прошлепал barefoot in a drawing room, lifted a tube.

The aged voice a tongue twister said:

- Herbert, my very old friend, I congratulate you on Christmas... We didn't communicate with you 15 years therefore my voice seems to you unfamiliar. However, when you will remember an empty beer barrel in a cellar of my house, you will understand at once who calls you. Stop! Only don't call my surname! Well, you understand... I ring from a call-box...

After a barrel mention Brandt finally woke up and is sympathizing asked:

- My master, than I is obliged to so late call?

- Herbert, my son has problems... No, not the criminal... Political! The help is necessary for it, but here nobody will render it... I think, you will be able to help it...

- I understood everything... How call the son and what he is able to do?

- Günter - the reporter of one newspaper...

- Well. I will help. I will eat my boots!

- Thanks and farewell, Herbert!

Having returned to a bedroom, the burgomaster couldn't fall asleep for a long time, again and again mentally coming back to those such close events far and still 40-x years of which he was reminded by Axel Guillaume. That "kind doctor Axel" who, risking life, hid from Gestapo and treated young Herbert Fram in the house...

"Yes, I yet didn't receive such congratulation on Christmas! " - filling up, Brandt thought.

... Willie Brandt kept the word. With its help spouses Guillaume, Günter and Kristel, both are officers of Head department of intelligence of GDR, in a month appeared in Frankfurt am Main where became members Sotsial - democratic party of Germany and having rolled up sleeves turned to work in the local organization SPD.

So the new stage of their life proceeding of nearly 20 years which they call subsequently "a long hara-kiri" began...


"Monuments not at ingenious opening are put, and on patient bums". These words fully concern to spouses - scouts Guillaume. Even the chief of GUR general Markus Wolf, the true workaholic at heart, was surprised to improbable diligence and devotion of the subordinates when performing the received task. Thanks to sharpness of mind, analytical skills and maniacal persistence they for a short time promoted on higher steps of party hierarchy of SPD, than assumed in the management and GUR, and GB.

"We warned them, - Wolf wrote subsequently, - that they not too close came nearer to the power. It as under the sun - it is possible to sunbathe, but it is possible and to get incurable burns. However Giyoma were born for investigation, as birds for flight. They I was scouts of the highest test - four 9999, constantly aimed at success. Within more than ten years they persistently made the way upward, thus nothing was given them hurriedly, wasn't on a silver platter. They were titans of daily work and, without being afraid of responsibility, worked that is called "backhand". In ten years of Giyoma got and transported to the Center of one hundred documents under a signature stamp "top secret" and "special importance", thus they watched that they didn't have any puncture. In it the main secret of their successful advance in the immediate environment of the German chancellor Willie Brandt consisted... "

... In three years, passed from the date of a conclusion Giyomov in Germany, both ahead of schedule were entitled majors and were awarded by awards of the German Democratic Republic...

Kristel Guillaume (an operational pseudonym Anita) the first I achieved success: in 1960 she headed Willie Birkelbakh's administration - one of the most influential people in German социал - democracies, the board member of SPD, the deputy of the Bundestag.It was a part of several important committees, and also was the chairman of socialist fraction of European Parliament and статс - the secretary of the land government of Hesse. On Birkelbakh's table regularly there were NATO documents under a signature stamp "top secret" and "special importance", as, for example, "A war picture" and the materials connected with plans for a case of introduction of state of emergency in a wartime. I made a copy of Kristel's all specified documents by means of the Minoks camera, and they immediately appeared on Markus Wolf's table, and then in Moscow.

The wife wasn't lagged behind also by Günter (an operational pseudonym Hanzen). In 1961 it became orgsekretary to the Frankfurt district organization SPD, and in three years - orgsekretary социал - democratic fraction in city meeting and its deputy. Guillaume gained George Leber's trust, one of leaders of SPD. The last as remuneration for a victory on elections which to it was provided by the scout, promised to Günter a position in Bonn and found it.

At the end of 1965 Hanzen received a position of the senior assistant of the deputy head of foreign policy department of the Federal Republic Walter Scheel, however continued to participate actively in party affairs German социал - democracies.

Ways of communication with Giyomami were developed taking into account their habits and movement routes around the city. Hanzen and Anita were heavy smokers therefore visit of a tobacco bench by them wouldn't cause in anybody questions. Got information of the spouse turned into microfilms which put in empty cigar sleeves and gave them to the agent who held a trade institution. The last gave sleeves to the courier who was weekly visiting Frankfurt am Main under the guise of the direct-sales representative.

To supply a prospecting tandem with instructions, to modify a line of conduct of Günter and Kristel, to plan the new purposes, the Center used unilateral broadcasts. Same "tabachnik" accepted them on the transistor receiver, nothing differing that were on free sale then, having enclosed in cigarettes the deciphered radiogramms, "sold" these "goods" Giyomam.


At the beginning of 1966 the chairman of the board Ministrov of the USSR Alexey Kosygin at meeting of the Politburo of the Central Committee of CPSU once again brought up a question of construction in the automobile works country on production of cars as the quantity of let-out "Volg", "Muscovites" and "Zaporozhetses" couldn't satisfy a population growing demand. Alexey Nikolaevich thus emphasized that gold and exchange stocks of the country allow to solve a problem cardinally. Brezhnev took an interest that the speaker means.

- I, Leonid Ilyich, - answered Kosygin, - I suggest to buy foreign automobile works with a full cycle of production. At the same time all component parts will be produced not abroad, and within the country. Having got foreign plant, we will become owners of new technologies which we will introduce on our automobile works. Besides, to a new level of development there are allied industries of the industry: chemical, metallurgical, oil.

- In such purchase how many will manage?

- According to the estimates of experts of the State Planning Committee, about billion dollars...

- Billion dollars... It is a bit too much! - disappointedly Brezhnev said.

- I apologize, Leonid Ilyich, - Kosygin rapped out, - would like to remind that within three last years the Soviet Union from export of oil, gold and furs annually had 10 billion dollars! Add to them 9,5 billion every year transferred in the State Bank by the Arab countries for delivery of our arms, and then acquisition of automobile works will equal to purchase of the children's bicycle.

- No, Alexey Nikolaevich, it is necessary to wait a little with purchase of plant.

However Kosygin didn't intend to give up and laid out on a table the last, but the most powerful trump.

- Leonid Ilyich! If we don't want to untwist inflation, the plant should be bought and as soon as possible! After all on hands at the population today is 80-90 billion rubles, that is at an official rate more than 100 billion dollars, and it is the cumulative annual budget of such countries, as Holland, Belgium and Denmark... And accumulation of our citizens grow from year to year in an arithmetic progression, and people don't trust savings banks, and keep money in "jugs"! In order that notes of 50 and 100 rubles were in circulation, Goznak for an hour doesn't switch off the press. Sometime all this monetary weight an avalanche will collapse and will crush all...Us first of all! To withdraw these billions from "jugs", it is necessary to throw out on domestic market not jewelry and import consumer goods as it becomes today, and something more powerful. Our new domestic car created on the basis of the western technologies will be it "more powerful" also!

- And how you counted money of our citizens? They in "jugs"!

- Everything is very simple, Leonid Ilyich! The volume of the accumulation hidden in "jugs" never was for experts of the State Bank secret behind seven seals. The small chest opens simply. At all times people hid in note "jugs" of only the highest face value. At us those are to fifty - and storublevka. Knowing quantity of released "fifty-kopeck pieces" and "stolnik", bank employees, having counted in the end of the year the come-back banknotes of this advantage, can tell with an accuracy of one billion, what sum remained on hands with the population.

- It is necessary... Cunning! I wouldn't guess... Well, Alexey Nikolaevich, convinced! Instruct the chairman of KGB and the minister Vneshtorga that they found out, in what country it is possible to get plant cheaper... And there, you look, having bargained, we will beat down the price... We give you half a year. You will cope?

- I think and.


The first about accepted, without exaggeration, the epoch-making decision of the Politburo Americans learned. How? Very simply: Council of ministers, without speaking about the Ministry of Foreign Trade of the USSR, were as Swiss cheese full of holes, are through eaten by CIA agency. In a month after meeting of the Kremlin Areopagus to Moscow the delegation led by Henry Ford III welcomed.

Why the owner of this concern arrived to the Soviet Union? It is thought, the answer to this question will be given by the following fact: the ex-the director of CIA Allen Welsh Dulles retired by the president Kennedy, appeared on a post of the chairman of the board of directors of the world famous automobile giant.

... Having got on reception to Alexey Kosygin, Henry Ford III suggested it to get plant on production of cars of a small class. I added that its concern developed two small-capacity models - "Ford - Capri" and "Ford - Taunus" which unlike traditional American models the class correspond to cars of Western Europe and the USSR.

Precouncil of ministers as the skilled diplomat and the businessman played game: "yes" and "no" not to speak, "black" and "white" not to call, having referred to that the issue of purchase of automobile works is resolved jointly on the Politburo.Actually Kosygin waited when information from the chairman of KGB and the head of the Ministry of Foreign Trade who were given a task on the channels to find out what of the West European automobile concerns is ready to sell automobile works for the price accepted for the USSR will arrive...

Henry Ford III on - to the regarded noncommittal of the chairman of the board Ministrov and to neutralize proposals of potential competitors, adduced the most powerful argument: if the USSR gets its plant for 5 billion dollars, he is ready, using the Canadian technologies of construction of highways (the climate of Canada, as we know, is similar to climate of Russia), free of charge to build the highway from Moscow to Vladivostok...

For all history of the Soviet Union of more favorable offer from foreign businessmen never arrived! But... Purely political reasons prevailed, and the Politburo as a result rejected Henry Ford's proposal...

... The matter is that in 1966 the United States began to lose the influence on the West European countries. Applying for a predominating role in NATO, the American administration led by Lyndon Johnson, simply speaking, I "went too far". The president of France Charles de Gaulle the first rose against hegemony of the USA, having left the military organization of North Atlantic alliance and having left there only the observer. This demarche otrezvlyayushche worked and on heads of other NATO member states. Great Britain, Italy and Spain asked a natural question: "Who in Western Europe the owner? Americans or we, Europeans? " In the block disorder and swayings began. The management of the USSR used the developed political environment and to make disagreements between Washington and its West European partners in NATO irreversible, decided to buy automobile works in Western Europe. The question was in at whom it will cheaper cost?


Markus Wolf was not only the talented head of investigation, but also the perspicacious politician. Analyzing an internal political situation of Germany and an action of the ruling union CDU/CSU, the general came to a conclusion that this alliance settled the potential, and for the population of the Federal Republic more and more attractive there are ideas социал - democracies. Therefore Hanzen and Anita's main task was search, studying and recruitment of those heads of SPD who were interested in rapprochement with the countries of "east block".Besides, to spouses it was imputed a duty in due time to signal about threat of an aggravation of an international situation which could lead to open military opposition. However the basic - doesn't mean the only thing. And here in 1966 Giyomam was necessary to take "a step aside": to deal with an economic issue though for the USSR it there was at all a question - a problem. And - both political, and economic property. It is hard to say, what of components prevailed.

In a word, from the curator Markus Wolf of the spouse - scouts received a task to find out at what of the West European concerns it is more favorable to Soviet Union to get automobile works.

From the report presented by Hanzen followed that it is more expedient to Moscow to conclude the bargain with "Fiat" as it for production of cars gets component parts at the West German industrial giants of "BMW" and "Mercedes Benz", and also at the French concern "Renault". Thus, according to Guillaume's conclusion, the USSR has unique opportunity "one shot to kill three hares" - for a long time "to attach" to itself economy at once three large West European states: Italy, Germany and France. According to conclusions of the scout, strengthening of economic relations of the USSR with the specified countries will have also political consequences: they also will pursue further foreign policy without thinking about the United States of America. At last, Guillaume claimed, considering that the Italian automotive industry is in a condition of stagnation, owners of "Fiat" can be inclined without effort to the conclusion of the transaction on the terms of the Soviet party.

Markus Wolf, having estimated importance of the report of Hanzen, immediately I took off for Moscow where reported information on the chairman of KGB Yury Andropov, and that acquainted with it Alexey Kosygin. The last completely agreed with Hanzen's arguments and, having highly appreciated efforts of GUR, raised on the Politburo a question of encouragement of the German companions. Markus Wolf was awarded the order the Red Banner, to Günter Guillaume ahead of schedule appropriated a colonelcy.

... Thus, the research opinion - Günter Guillaume's report became a starting point for the conclusion in 1967 of the contract between the Soviet Union and Italy about construction of the Volga automobile works (VAZ). The transaction managed the USSR in unprecedentedly small sum in world practice - all in 550 million dollars!


On October 1, 1969 Willie Brandt occupied a chair of the German chancellor.He remembered Guillaume's merits in advance of heads of SPD of various levels on high posts in local and federal governing bodies. Therefore charged to Horst Emke, the head of the administration, to resolve an issue of Guillaume's inclusion in the next orbit. As it was made. In 1970 to Günter Guillaume charge creation of governmental bureau for carrying out congress of SPD in Saarbruecken. Guillaume, being the head of this division of administration of the federal chancellor, personally I communicated with responsibles of BND (the West German investigation) owing to what with the consent of Federal bureau on constitution protection (counterintelligence of Germany) I got access to the classified information of the highest degree of privacy which became right there known for GUR and KGB...

In 1973 Guillaume became the personal assistant of the chancellor supervising financial receipts in SPD, but then was transferred to a position of the reviewer on party questions. Since then he participated as in meetings of boards of SPD and its fractions, and in meetings of managers of departments of board of party.

However Hanzen brought the greatest advantage of GUR and KGB in 1970-1972 during preparation of Meeting on safety and cooperation in Europe. In due time informing on a position of the West European partners of Germany, and also the United States concerning a final version of provisions of the Declaration of meeting, the scout helped the USSR and the countries of the Warsaw pact to develop an optimum line of conduct for successful upholding of the interests.

Besides Guillaume managed to get three especially important documents.

The letter of the U.S. President Richard Nixon directed by it on July 3, 1972 to Willie Brandt was the first. It contained a request to induce the French management to sign the Atlantic charter according to which the West European NATO member states had to confirm a predominating role of Washington.

The second - a detailed report about Brandt's confidential negotiations with Nixon and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Germany Walter Scheel with the Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. During meetings the American president frankly admitted that the Soviet Union made such progress in the field of military equipment at which drawing the first nuclear attack of the USA goes beyond the possible.

The report of the head of Federal bureau on protection of the Constitution Egon Bara in which he advised the chancellor was the third document not to give in to pressure of Americans, staking good relations both with partners in NATO, and with the USSR.

All three documents testified that disagreements in NATO continue to become aggravated, than the Soviet Union wasn't slow to use, having compelled the USA to sign in May, 1972 the Contract on restriction of systems of antimissile defense (missile defense) and the Contract on restriction of strategic arms (OCB-1)...


In the fall of 1972 during a meeting with the operator one of the oldest agents of GUR in the Federal Republic, the employee of East bureau of the German labor unions Wilhelm Gronau was arrested. It wouldn't lead to Hanzen and Anita's failure if in a notebook of the operator the surname "Guillaume" didn't appear...

One beginning employee of Federal bureau on protection of the Constitution was engaged in careful studying deciphered, but not identified radiogramms, the zapelengovannykh in the territory of Germany since the middle 50-x years. Having compared dates of arriving congratulatory telegrams with days of births Giyomov, the meticulous detective was rewarded for the speed - he received documentary confirmation of that the married couple within more than ten years received encoded radiogramms from the Soviet reconnaissance center of Karlskhorst that in East Germany.

After this the guide of Federal bureau to protection of the Constitution was anxious with two problems - immediately to arrest Giyomov that as soon as possible "to beat out from them" proofs of criminal activity, or to leave them on the posts that, watching them, to convict of communications with GUR. It was decided to choose the second way. At first it was observed Kristel, being based on the assumption that communication with the courier, so, and with the Center, went through it. Counterspies hoped to seize the woman by transfer of materials to the courier and thus to catch necessary evidential base of espionage activity of spouses.

However especially political reasons, pursuing the purpose discharge from Willie Brandt's power, forced Federal bureau to postpone on protection of the Constitution arrest date Giyomov. What for? In order that the chancellor as it is possible I got stuck in the relations with a couple of scouts then his resignation would be inevitable more deeply.And all because among "hawks" of the Federal Republic and in its intelligence services which have been closely connected with CIA, grew discontent with policy of the chancellor, not in words, and in practice aspiring to reconciliation of two conflicting social systems...


Dense supervision over spouses was conducted over a year, however it wasn't succeeded to receive proofs of their espionage activity, and on April 24, 1974 was decided to detain Giyomov.

I produced the evidence of the communication with reconnaissance bodies of GDR rather Günter proclaimed. Having caught sight on a threshold of the apartment of group of counterspies, it the voice which was broke for excitement cried out: "I ask to consider that I am an officer of GUR and the citizen of GDR! " This recognition was the main proof of fault of Günter Guillaume. Only and the last. Bigger from it counterspies didn't manage to achieve during all consequence. I was silent also Kristel...

Günter Guillaume was sentenced to 13 years of imprisonment, his wife - to eight.

At this time Markus Wolf incessantly plied between Berlin and Moscow, puzzling over what agents could be offered the West in exchange for Giyomov. Willie Brandt's resignation significantly complicated on May 6, 1974 GUR positions as the new chancellor Helmut Schmidt categorically declared that Giyoma have to serve sentence till last day. Business became really hot after Fidel Castro refused to let out the resident of CIA colonel James Hunt, and Brezhnev artificially tightened Anatoly Sharansky's release...

At last in March, 1981 Kristel exchanged for two West German spies. Upon return to Germany one of them told in interview to the Shpigel magazine that the western scouts for many years pining in prisons of GDR, would welcome any actions of the government which would facilitate their fate. To Helmut Schmidt remained nothing how to move towards wishes of the released... On October 1, 1981 Günter Guillaume exchanged for six West German agents...


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