85 years ago the red commander Moisey Vinnitsky was shot, he is the king of underworld the Bear Yaponchik. Many years later a nickname Yaponchik received other criminal authority which has been transported under guard recently from the USA Vyacheslav Ivankov. Between Yaponchik - 1 and Yaponchiky - 2 the whole era - an era of "thieves in law" went in. The known historian, the researcher of a domestic crime, the doctor of jurisprudence, professor Yakov Gilinsky tells about it.
Whether there was a Bear Yaponchik first "thief in law"?
- Ben Krik at Babel which prototype, as we know, there was a Bear Yaponchik, - almost the first "the noble bandit" in the Soviet literature. And Leonid Utesov knowing Yaponchik personally, in the memoirs mentions even certain "the moral code". Yaponchik and his accomplices didn't love violence, in particular "murders".
Yaponchik wasn't "thief in law" as the thieves' law appeared only at the end of 20-x - the beginning 30-x years. And though "the honest thief" (he is "thief in law") really was negative to violence - to it was forbidden to kill someone most, you shouldn't "bring" the thieves' law out of "code" of the Bear of Yaponchik. The set of certain rules, including rules of behavior, existed in the Russian thieves' artels known since the XV-XVI centuries. Voluntary occurrence, mutual responsibility, selectivity of leaders or atamans. The member of such community gave part of production for collective needs, later these means began to call "common fund". When the Bear Yaponchik holding Odessa "common fund", supported families of arrested or the robbers who have lost "in practice", bribed police, it didn't do anything essentially new.
Some authors claim that Yaponchik gone on penal servitude in 1908 on political article and released in 1917 - m on Kerensky's amnesty, returned to Odessa not the boy - the anarchist, and "thieves' Ivan" whom later and began to call "legalists".In pre-revolutionary Russia criminal really often were called after arrest "as Ivanami, not remembering relationship" not to be responsible for other crimes on which were searched by the authorities. But "thieves in law" - not simply new name "Ivanov". In the USSR absolutely special group which wasn't more in one other country was formed. Different researchers call the different reasons, the main versions two. The first - that the caste of "thieves in law" was created by the homeless children taken on education by old thieves. The second connects appearance of "thieves in law" with a difference in punishments between thieves' and political articles of the Criminal code.
"Rasstrelny article", formulated still Lenin in 1921 and subsequently turned in well-known 59-ю means well-known. Not criminals, and political opponents were the main enemies of Bolsheviks. But under the Criminal code 1924-го, and then and 1926 to crimes against a management order, that is to crimes state, with punishment up to execution, "gangsterism", article 59-3 belonged. And theft appeared a crime all-criminal. For it on 162-й to article threatened no more than one year.
Most likely, both versions of an origin of "thieves in law" are fair. Probably those who in World War I or Civil war lost parents were first and got to the criminal. They adopted thieves' spirit at the mentors, but were compelled to reckon with the won Soviet power and its laws. Solved:" legalists "simply" shake frayer" and don't raise at system, existing separately from it. Don't consist in parties, in no shape or form don't cooperate with the power, don't serve in army and at all don't take in hand the weapon, etc. In a question of the relation to the state and political crimes again arising criminal elite consciously kept separate from the old criminal world. Before revolution it was difficult to tell where criminals come to an end and fighters with a mode begin - except Yaponchik's Bear Kamo can remember, Kotovsk and others. Now the honest thief shouldn't have been at war with the state, he shouldn't have had with it relations at all. From there are rules or concepts. The family couldn't be made because for this purpose it was required to go to government body, the REGISTRY OFFICE, and to set the seal in the passport. The same and with work - the honest thief, or the thief in law, had to live on stolen or be engaged in fraud. Is slightly later, but even before war, there is a "coronation" ceremony. Before acceptance the candidate passed "trial period".On all zones were dispatched "малявы" for the purpose of collecting a compromising evidence. And if the compromising evidence wasn't, crowned.
Yaponchik created a "thieves'" shooting regiment and even managed to do some fighting for the Soviet power in Jonah Yakir's division. Then the same power killed him. Whether there was a death of "king" of Odessa by that lesson after whom urka promised to hob-nob with Councils? - We will tell so: Yaponchik's death helped to create "broth" from which "thieves in law" turned out then. As well as execution in 1923 of the bandit Lenki Panteleev in St. Petersburg, and defeat in the middle of 20-x all how many - нибудь known gangs - "A black cat" (not cinema-men invented her), gangs "Poprygunchikov", Vasily Bessmertny's gangs near Rostov, etc. If there is a strong wish, it is possible to call Yaponchik's Bear the forerunner of "thieves in law".
Why present "crowned" it is possible to kill if to "thieves in law" it was forbidden? After all Yaponchik who Ivankov, contains in prison on suspicion in murder.
Life of "legalists" started changing in the Great Patriotic War. In 1942 Stalin needed gun meat. Political to the front didn't send, and criminal promised removal of criminal records in a case "atonement by blood" and guaranteed not return to colonies. The part of thieves decided to break the law. The majority of them was lost in the shtrafbatakh. Someone served to a shoulder strap, awards and medals, and after war, having appeared without housing, without civilian professions and specialties, returned to last occupations. But in camps and zones the new, not "rolled out" generation already grew up. Began well-known "roll out wars". Slaughter was terrible, and after it the thieves' world changed, softened the law. There was an opportunity to register marriage, to have the housing (instead of to dangle on raspberries). Besides, the honorary title of "thief in law" became possible to be bought. Before the candidate had to pass a zone, and more than once, and the "legalists", any trip not having here began to appear. Especially much among them was natives of Georgia and the Caucasus, so-called lavrushnik.
When Stalin and Khrushchev died got back to idea of cooperation, "thieves in law" took under the aegis branch of a crime new to the USSR - "цеховиков". "Legalists" had an opportunity to put "common fund" into circulation, and "цеховики" - protection in imprisonment places. And the third structure, "umbrella", or the roof which was becoming isolated on militia and party chiefs covered interests of "thieves in law".By the way, at "dispersal" цеховиков (the word "racket" then didn't exist) the gang of the Mongol in which there began Yaponchik - Ivankov became famous for cruelty. Well and from the beginning of reorganization of "legalists" in these affairs "bandits", or "athletes" began to restrict.
Today the side between bandits and "thieves in law" will be very conditional. In the works methods of a difference honor any, and they develop in one direction. Are legalized, enter into the management business - structures, bank structures, bodies executive and legislature. Formally "thieves in law" still coexist with bandits, but their value was reduced. Them now about 200 - 300 people. And even the zone lives today not under the law, and on gangster "concepts". Still in 90-x when in Petersburg known "thief in law" Humpbacked died, Yury Alekseev, he called to itself(himself) the chief of the Petersburg Municipal Department of Internal Affairs Kramarev and complained: "I am afraid to die. The world changes. Terrible times come".