Till today at solemn occasions on Lubyanka remember an assessment which KGB the academician A. Sakharov gave. He told: "… thanks to the elitism of KGB it appeared almost only force in the USSR, not affected corruption". By inertia opinion of the academician that KGB division "is less than others" are infected with corruption, long time was supported.
Actually those who had opportunity to look at a situation from within, knew, what even in such elite family it was impossible to do without freaks. Today we tell about, whether there was a corruption in the Soviet bodies of state security.
With what fight against corruptionbegan
In FEBRUARY, 1919 one of resolutions of Council of work and defense allowed ChK "apply a capital punishment or prosecute voyenno-revolutionary tribunal of the officials convicted of bribery, forgery and plunders". Soon the court under the chairmanship of the deputy chairman of VChK Ivan Ksenofontov sentenced 44 persons taking bribes for release from military service to various terms of imprisonment. Those years in establishments and at the enterprises Economic management of VChK was engaged in fight against malfeasances.
Fight against counterrevolution didn't allow criminals to be developed in 20-е years. Nevertheless, on the corrupted Bolsheviks in VChK were dealt. Mixed in corruption there was directing investigation in Poland an envoy of the USSR Pyotr Lazarevich Voykov. It operated "a demonic aura" regicides, ran into scandals, took bribes and absolutely disorganized trade with Poland. When the large sums of money were gone in embassy, to Warsaw sent representatives of the Central control commission. Had to understand Voykov's participation in waste. Were late. 20- the summer White Russian Boris Koverda shot the executioner of an imperial family directly at the Warsaw station.Whether the fighter of VChK in due time executed the order, allowed to avoid a juicy scandal?
Instead of investigation of malfeasances of the envoy Bolsheviks shot in the Soviet prisons of 20 hostages, and Voykov buried at the Kremlin wall. In his honor called station of the Moscow subway. Eradicating corruption, in 1939 from bodies dismissed 7372 persons, 66,5% from them - for malfeasances.
First years of KGB
After KGB were headed by the general I. Serov, intelligence services started applying new technologies of personnel policy. Moved away Beria's people and put "adherents", "a support and надежу". Such "filtration", naturally, generated corruption. Formed the personnel massif from which then it was necessary "to advance" the most acceptable on higher "leading levels". The criminal people started breaking to vital success in any place, at any cost with the decupled energy. In KGB it was expressed in arrival on senior positions of "clans". At the chairman of KGB A. Shelepin it there were Komsomol bosses whom put on departments. Naturally, those failed operational work, compelling to make decisions on their translation "across" on the periphery. There they weren't so noticeable. There were periods of arrangement of people on a party set. With the same success.
The last word always was for KGB. "Strangers" cut from promotion by means of "compromising evidence" and skillful technologies on discredit. "" Advertized, despite obviously worst qualities. Existence in various structures of the power "agents of influence", relatives of employees and heads of intelligence services allowed KGB not only to be well informed on processes in power structures, but also actively to influence them in the necessary direction.
To Andropov's ARRIVAL corruption became almost open. Plunders in large and small sizes were norm of life. Officials, increasing the income, built the extortionate echeloned system of privileges and privileges. Extra charges to official salaries, grants for "period of service", the awards, the doubled holiday grants with payment of transportation to the vacation spot and back, the subsidized apartments, dachas, dining rooms, policlinics, hospitals increased the income of officials to uncertain level. Also connected them mutual responsibility. This phenomenon was known under the name "specialfeeding trough". It washed away a side between lawful and illegal, having gradually turned into a factor which tightened all country in corruption.
I bypassed this process and KGB structures where too used "specialfeeding troughs". Was considered that the most seductive from the point of view of "self-enrichment" of quick workers and their chiefs were not those divisions of counterintelligence which conducted direct fight against foreign espionage (counteraction to the American, English, Japanese, Turkish investigations). Divisions which quickly served such objects as MGIMO (the device in institute of children of men of weight with receiving the corresponding gratitude) disposed to corruption. Those who supervised Ministry of Health, had almost unlimited opportunities for receiving a bed - places for the "necessary" patients and scarce expensive drugs. Respectively, those who served Aeroflot and Ministry of Railways, had tickets for the necessary flights and trains. The sport committee provided at the request of the curator subscriptions in "the VIP - boxes" stadiums in days of the international competitions. The All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions gave permits in sanatorium, etc. Shops opened warehouses for obtaining deficiency in holiday days.
It became favorable to workers of trade to sell from - under floors and, respectively, "to feed up" those who could prevent it. If economic temptations forced in recent years about twenty highly paid professionals of KGB to go over abroad on the party of foreign intelligence services where guarantees, what their privates and much less wealthy colleagues, having faced temptations within the country, will resist? Everything was under construction on ability of operrabotnik of KGB to establish the relations with the management of object of service and to use significant and categorical it "is necessary".
At the beginning of 60-x all these "lush" sites were concentrated in 10 - m department of the Second head department KGB. When the department ceased to cope with "supplying" functions, it was reformed in 5-е KGB Management with difficult structure of functional departments. Thus all amicably pretended that it not corruption bacilli, and creating favorable conditions mechanisms for performance of tasks on ensuring state security.
Whether fought against it? Yes isn't present, used rather. The administration didn't fall before such contacts. There is an opera to which you will order, - and they will get that is necessary. And further: you to me - I to you. Barter of services with use of official position.
All this connected officials mutual responsibility, doing them by enemies of market reforms.It is natural that any attempts of cancellation of this system had to cause fierce counteraction from functionaries. As occurred.
Having come to the management of the country, Yu. Andropov decided to begin with establishing order as that. But the important issue regenerated in a usual inconstancy. "Switchmen" skillfully translated rails, and "armored train" descended from the main direction of fight against thieves and corrupt officials on a lateral branch. Began to arrange in working hours of a round-up in shops, movie theaters, hairdressing salons and even baths. Probably, understood that it is so possible to compromise all top of CPSU.
After Yu. Andropov's leaving "successful" development of corruption was promoted by the lowest size of the maintenance of employees, its irregular payment, not clear legal basis of granting side benefits, the actual participation of government institutions and their employees in private business activity. Merging of criminal structures with the power began. The criminal world continued the attempts to put separate structures of law enforcement agencies under control of criminal communities.
In APRIL, 1986 in Moscow at meeting of propagandists Boris Yeltsin made unusually frank description of magnificent life of appointees. He answered notes safely, clearly, laying all blame on the former heads, promising to resolve all issues quickly.
After this performance the well-known fighters with corruption Telman Gdlyan and Nikolay Ivanov snatched on KGB. The matter is that certain leading employees of state security appeared on other party of a barricade in never-ending dispute concerning corruption among members of the Central Committee of CPSU. Gdlyan managed to shake ineradicable belief of the people in the legend about fighters with the mafia, coming at a difficult moment to the aid of just poor people whom this mafia gathers. But knowing people understood that to what. The people in KGB were indignant. Groups of activists from among employees of local UKGB tried to tell the bitter truth about "permanent heads on places, tens years of the local party authorities following private instructions". Demanded to bring an order. KGB board, позаседав, made the indistinct decision: to understand something, to eliminate something, to improve something. As a result of activists from among "signers" accused of abuse of official position and bribery. The most persistent detained. To conversations that is punishment for letter writing, didn't pay attention.Went down stream.
But it all were trifles in comparison with when KGB started taking root into profitable spheres of business, to capture instruments of control of financial streams and to promote oligarchy origin.