On April 26, 1986 there was an explosion on 4 - m the power unit of the Chernobyl NPP, to equivalent 500 Hiroshima bombs. It changed life of millions people on a planet. On December 17, 2003 delegates 58-й sessions of the United Nations General Assembly adopted the resolution in which long-term character of consequences of this accident was emphasized and Day of memory of victims of radiation accidents and accidents - was proclaimed on April 26.
Today in Germany there live many people who built this nuclear power plant, worked at it, and then became liquidators of consequences of accident.
Two of them, Vyacheslav Vaks and Victor Glok, shared the memoirs.
There lived two companions
This ill-fated day Vyacheslav decided to go a bit earlier to giving - to weed strawberry. Streets of Pripyat were desert, but almost at each house militiamen were on duty. "Probably, administration arrival is expected", - Vyacheslav solved. But in two quarters I saw the cars washing the street. "Again emission", - he thought.
Old residents already got used to emergency emissions of isotopes: unpleasantly, but there's nothing to be done. And Vyacheslav was an old resident. On April 26, 1971 it arrived here from Angarsk: the Trud newspaper told that on the river Pripyat will build new state district power station. The settlement of builders was called Forest, and lived here the person 200, it is no more. Around - the wood, squirrels jump, beauty! I decided to remain. On August 15, 1971 I was the participant of a laying of the first cube of concrete (with a capsule with the address to Komsomol members of 2000! ) in the base of the future 1-го the block (as it appeared, at all a hydra - and nuclear) stations. It let in 1977.
Approximately one year prior to this event to the city of Pripyat (grown from the settlement Forest) there arrived to business trip from Dzhezkazgan the construction electrician Victor Glok. Family of this Russian German under the known decree of August, 1941 moved from coast of Volga to Kazakhstan. The boy grew in a family where all spoke on - German. When it went to school, it had to master Russian from scratch.But diligence and meticulousnesses to the boy was not to occupy. And the assembler left him first-class. He became the known expert in the Union on installation of difficult electric equipment and high-voltage cables. Therefore Victor should have expressed desire to remain to work at nuclear power plant construction as it with pleasure put to a position of the foreman.
Vyacheslav and Victor made friends. Together built and launched 3-й the nuclear power plant block in 1983, 4-й - in 1984 - m
In day of accident from a window of the house Victor saw an unusual cloud over 4 - m the block. But no extraordinary messages on TV or radio existed. I called several acquaintances. All had a bad presentiment.
Vyacheslav's wife worked as the director of high school. Next day after accident it caused in a party district committee.
No panic! - the secretary of a district committee spoke. - You give the classes in the approved plan. If competitions are planned - you hold competitions if the campaign in the wood - means, a campaign in the wood.
But even the secretary of a district committee had no exact plan of action for these days. Because already it was every other day declared that all residents without fail evacuate for a 30-kilometer zone. At night automobile motors hooted. Next morning each house had buses. It was allowed to take only the most necessary: documents, drugs, money. It was supposed that all will return soon.
Vyacheslav with the family passed some kilometers. Then I asked the driver to stop the bus.
- I can't leave. There my help is required, - he told the wife. - Don't worry, I will find you.
Victor Glok's family took out to the village, and in few months sent to the city of Balakovo of the Saratov region. Since May started working with a shift method.
To work with a shift method meant: two weeks - in Chernobyl, two weeks - in Balakovo. When arrived on rest, Victor went on others city and grieved: he got used to Pripyat, to the silent forest party; to friends whom now only for a moment I met by watch transfer. On "object" nobody wanted to think of terrible consequences of work.
As in South Africa
By the end of 1986 of a family of Glok and Shoe-polish received apartments in Kiev. Their crews worked at elimination in the watches, replacing one another. During watch of crew lived in empty apartments of the city of Chernobyl that is approximately in 15 km from the nuclear power plant. Used the left ware, frying pans, pans.Friends bought one ticket for two and transferred each other: what is, and economy!
Almost at all members of erection team by the end of watch the voice vanished: spoke hoarsely, hardly uttering words. In two weeks of rest in Kiev the voice came back, and again went on watch, to the building destroyed by explosion.
First very much were afraid to take mushrooms in the woods. Then grew bolder. Once Vyacheslav's children gathered many perfect cepes. Dried up and filled dried mushrooms some pairs of man's underpants. These freakish capacities hung on ropes in the rotational apartment, their contents gradually used. During the next medical examination it appeared that at all members of crew radiation exceeds 5000 nanocuries (at norm 100! ). The next day all stocks of mushrooms departed to a garbage tank.
Girls - laboratorians ran on gardens, picked berries, cooked compote and all treated. Will eat compote, will measure the nanocuries, will be convinced that not really there is a lot of, and again for the.
Crews of liquidators replenished with "guerrillas". So called called on temporary military service. Experts directed to assemblers or builders, and to the rests charged the dirtiest - in literal and figurative sense - work. For example, they cleared a roof 4-го the block of fragments of construction materials. Will dump down, in a machine hall, 1-2 shovels of garbage - and in shelter. Overalls - any, only on hands tarpaulin gloves, and a mouth and nostrils are covered with a respirator. The majority of them wasn't stretched also by years after Chernobyl.
In warehouses in Pripyat there were many valuable materials. The administration decided to get their neutralization plant. The equipment for this enterprise brought from Germany. From there came chiefs for supervision of installation. With one of them, Claus, Vyacheslav resolved all arising issues. Once it was necessary to coordinate cable replacement. Claus listened to resourceful Vyacheslav's proposal and approved it. And when saw how lay a grounding contour, I told:
- Well, well, such once I already saw in South Africa.
Pigs in peak-caps
From the houses left in Chernobyl all stole: window frames, doors, pipes; hacked safes, trying to find money or jewelry. And on streets of the desert city absolutely run wild three big pigs with militia peak-caps on the heads ran: mischievous persons and there sufficed!
From the enterprise for neutralization of materials too dragged much:pumps which could be adapted at dacha, tools, measuring devices and so on, and so forth. At the end of watch assemblers had to hide the equipment, to displace welding cables, to remove yet not strengthened copper tires: then you will miss. Often assemblers refused to use in work as expensive tools: will steal, and then be responsible for them! From - for all this and productivity was low.
Against other collectives Victor Glok's crew was allocated. His German punctuality and care, on the one hand, led to high-quality performance of work, with another - caused discontent of other foremen who have got used to hack-work. Victor understood these circumstances, but could do nothing with itself.
Dosimeters which gave out to each liquidator, often were not at them, and houses, in a bedside table rolled. Because people were afraid to gain those critical 25 rem of radiation after which dismissal from the infected object inevitably followed. And business was not that it is difficult to find other work. Dismissed I lost touch with the organization which cared (or it was obliged to do it! ) about granting or apartment expansion, allocation of the car, the permit to treatment, not to mention that it lost high earnings: to liquidators paid a fivefold salary!
And here those who had only indirect relation to elimination, but I wanted to receive the disability connected with nuclear accident (in the people it called "communication"), resorted to cunnings: asked liquidators to wear their dosimeters. Volunteers attached dosimeters slightly above than a foot (that is is closer to the earth) and went with them on watch. It was easy to gain necessary 25 rem.
The first workers of trade, behind them - physicians received "communication"; said that other things being equal the bribe reached 3000 dollars.
Victor Glok considers: in accident those who gave a green light on so-called "experiment on energy use выбега the generator" are guilty. One planned experiment, executed others, and the third were interested in it. The matter is that nuclear RBMK reactors (high-speed multichannel), the stations established on four operating blocks, and planned to installation on 5 - m and 6 - m blocks, were considered as military: in them plutonium for nuclear bombs was developed. Condemned not those who was interested in dangerous experiment, and those who thoughtlessly carried out it.
Rewarding was exactly the opposite made also. In initial lists included both our heroes. After all they were among those who from the first day of accident worked at restoration destroyed by explosion 3-го the nuclear power plant block. But awards for them didn't suffice. Victor Glok was given the medal "For Labour Valour". And Vyacheslav in general struck off the list when in regional committee of party learned that he is a Jew. But awards were received by people whom in the first, most terrible weeks and months on object in general nobody saw.
Not without reason the people bitingly characterized terrible accident so: sensation, confusion, punishment innocent and rewarding of not privy.
Where watch sunflowers?
The young generation припятчан became one of victims of Chernobyl accident. Fathers and mothers working with a shift method, weeks didn't stay at home. And after hard and dangerous work they had no forces to go into details of life of children. Besides to be equipped on a new place it was absolutely difficult. For example, coupons on the right of purchase of furniture the people approached to the administration had only. The general confusion, uncertainty in tomorrow, fear before danger of radiation exposure made the business: boys and little girls started taking alcoholic drinks and drugs. Many finished in psychiatric hospital or became chronic alcoholics.
Victor Glok and Vyacheslav Vaks was lucky: such trouble passed their children. Soon both friends went to language courses: Vyacheslav learned Hebrew as went to Israel, and Victor - German: he too intended to return the historical home. But circumstances developed so that both appeared in Germany. Now exchange calls, visit to each other. In 1986 at trips Vyacheslav paid attention to watch that the sunflowers which have remained in fields near Chernobyl, behave unusually: in the morning, in the afternoon and look in the same party - towards the destroyed nuclear reactor in the evening.
Yes that sunflowers! When on being considered absolutely safe the German nuclear power plants "Brunsbüttel" (Brunsbttel, Schleswig-Holstein) and "Kryummel" (Krmmel, Schleswig-Holstein) happened troubles, experts at their elimination already considered a bitter experience of the Chernobyl NPP. So if, God forbid, here or on other nuclear power plants at the service personnel the voice suddenly will be gone, doctors at once will understand the reasons of such illness.