Under a portrait of the favourite leader

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In 1847 in the Sotnikovsky district of the Oryol province there was a case: the petty bourgeois Philip Bardulin in a state of intoxication "three times spat on a portrait of the most august person which hung on a wall of a courier tavern, and abusively was herewith expressed …". The petty bourgeois took away in a police station and right there reported on it on the tsar. The emperor Nikolay I, the speaker of Decembrists, disposed to pardon the profaner of the portrait, having written the instructions: "Tell it that I on it spit". Also I enjoined from now on the portraits in taverns not to hang out. It not historical joke. Philip Bardulin was on the maternal line the native grandfather of the well-known Soviet artist Alexander Mikhaylovich Gerasimov who became famous for that drew portraits of the Soviet leaders: V. Lenin, I. Stalin, K. Voroshilov and others.
"Portretization" of official offices in independent Ukraine began in the late nineties if to be absolutely exact, on the eve of presidential election of 1999. Kuchma needed to be chosen for the second term, chances of happy end, then, if it is honest, looked shaky. Here then someone's "light" head - tell, the head of presidential administration of that time Nikolay Beloblotsky - the thought of continuous "oportrechivaniye" of offices came. No sooner said than done. Portraits of "leader" of the Ukrainian state as if on a wave of a magic wand at once appeared on tables at ministers, governors, than mayors and officials a rank is lower. Refusal was equivalent to dismissal. Yes generally, got used to the most exotic trick of tops the Ukrainian official, especially also didn't resist. Since then passed nearly ten years, Kuchma long ago on pension, and here tradition to decorate with portraits of leaders offices - remained, and even was increased. Now became the rule to keep on a desktop in an office portraits of leaders so to speak "profile" level. According to this trend the chief customs officer of area is obliged to hold on a desktop a portrait of the head of the Public customs service of Ukraine, the regional prosecutor - a portrait of the general prosecutor etc.
Recently we came on business into the Executive Committee of the City Soviet of People's Deputies and saw on a wall in an office of one of officials a portrait of the President. The chief executive was in a light suit and a red tie.In half an hour at office of business concern, over a chair of the director, observed already other portrait of the first person of the state. The president was without tie, the top button of a light shirt расстегнута, in depth was looked through a hairy breast. The free photo made the image of the guarantor Konstitution more democratic and close for the viewer. In two hours, on a check point of military unit, the President was already in a dark suit and a blue tie. Anfasny portraits are as like as two peas, toilets change only. Why programmers change to the President suits and ties, and the person leave without change? Why the image of the head of state is in offices of officials near the coat of arms and a flag of Ukraine? Why businessmen and officials from local government have a known draft to hang out portraits of the first person? Questions interesting also demand reflections. In Nikolaev there is no general "hobby" to decorate offices with photos of the President of Ukraine. But in Ternopol, Ivano - Frankovsky, Uzhgorod and Lvov areas can be met the image of the head of state practically in each office. Here the portrait of the leader of the nation - the fact is equated to the state symbols. Than to explain such geography?. It is impossible to weary the reader. It is necessary to answer immediately.
Sacral symbol
The tradition to identify the political leader with sacred symbols of the people appeared at the same time with state emergence. Images in a stone of the Greek archons and busts of the Roman emperors are known. Frescos with portraits of the Assyrian, Babylon tsars on walls of palaces and public structures are known. The Christian religion carried out a line of demarcation between political and spiritual leaders of the nation. Prophets and sacred began to be represented on church canons, and secular painting gradually turned into autonomous branch of the fine arts. Portraits of the European monarchs to the XIX century in large quantities weren't duplicated. Known artists did portraits of governors by orders of the highest aristocracy and grandees. The image of the king in the lock of the obstinate baron testified to political loyalty of the citizen to the сюзерену. Mass copying of images of political leaders appears in Europe with emergence of empires. In 1789 Catherine II in the letter utters to the minister of palace imushchestvo Alexander Glukhov: "… my portrait for provincial presence should be replaced and withdrawn immediately that are already sent.Clean excess awards, they hang on me Gipsy monisty … I look the absolute silly woman …". Portraits of the Russian monarchs were carried out by the well-known masters of the Russian Academy of Arts, then duplicated in palace workshops. Images became in strictly academic style. The quantity of awards, uniform with military insignia, color, light and volume prospect were approved personally by emperors - the same as the coat of arms, the anthem and a flag. The image of the monarch, along with all state attributes, was an uniting secular symbol of the nation. Arrival of Bolsheviks to the power was marked by hard-fought battle for the statement of new symbolics. It is a question of monopolization of the state attributes on social and spiritual life of the Soviet citizens. Persecutions on orthodox church were accompanied not only withdrawal of church values, but also mass destruction of icons. Images of spiritual leaders: sacred, martyrs and prophets, were subject to destruction because new sacral images of leaders of the proletarian state had to take their place. The totalitarian mode erased border between spiritual and secular painting, having generated new philosophy of the fine arts - socialist realism.
Psychological perception of a portrait
On a surface simple answers to the questions posed lie. Portraits of the head of state in establishments of local government is an atavism of authoritative consciousness of our citizens. Really, to whom will come to mind to hang up in the city hall of any French canton Nicolas Sarkozy's portrait or in magistrate of the German town Angela Merkel's image. Americans like to hoist the national colors on each lawn, but to hold at home Bush's portrait … избави god! But all know also the return perception of the political leader as a national symbol. This is the late Turkmen - баши which finished own a sacralization to the point of absurdity. On the former Soviet Union it wasn't observed anywhere such idolization of the leader, as in Turkmenistan: huge statues, portraits on bank notes of all advantages, "Rukhnama" as the Ledger of each Turkmen, the renamed names of months … Today there everywhere overthrow a recent idol. All these events occur is so squeezed in time that look a caricature for the detached onlooker.
Modern sotsiopsikhologiya Serge Moskovichi and Gabriel Tard who deeply investigated a phenomenon of theatricality of an image of the leader in perception of masses, answered the questions posed very convincingly.There is a sense to quote some paragraphs from their article: "The logic of existence of weight follows the simple scheme: the leader sets a sample which right there is picked up, imitated, extends. The extremely important role is played here by mass media, especially modern. Stereotypification of perception of thousands and even million people results. There is a uniformity of thoughts, feelings and the belief associated with portrait image of the leader. It is important to leader to possess intuitive ability of emotional impact on masses. Emotions, as we know, seldom are caused by theoretical reasonings. It is easiest to excite them if to strike imagination. To operate weight - means to operate her imagination. The speech, thus, goes about art by any way to make impression. And the most infallible remedies here - presentation, staging, brightness, vivacity, figurativeness, proximity of recognition. There are three main strategy causing an emotional response from masses: staging, ritual, promotion or collective suggestion. Process of mass influence is carried out usually in places where a significant amount of people can take place: on squares, stadiums, in palaces, cathedrals, etc. These places are as appropriate made out by means of symbols, evident and sound. Banners, portraits, allegorical images, for example, a sickle and a hammer, a swastika and so forth, songs, music, marches are used.
Slogans in which the crowd glorifies itself and the leaders, for example are quite often used: "Long live Soviet people! " that it is possible to read and so: "Yes we are well! ", "Slava of CPSU! ", appeals are distributed.
Besides, ceremonial, ritual actions are applied: parades, demonstrations, processions, meetings, choreography of masses when images, inscriptions, figures from people are created. At last, the exit of the leader is arranged as deification of the events, the highest point of ecstasy. Overexcitation and emotional instability of masses, in turn, are the reason of an exclusive credulity. Masses easily falls into a state, it is similar narcotic or hypnotic, their suggestibility why increases. In this state they trust all and, respectively, make everything that to them order. People start staying in the world of illusions, collective hallucinations, imagination, dreams. All this facilitates possibility of deception and that is more important, self-deception of masses.The crowd isn't able to think critically, being not able to analyze own experience, so, and to learn lessons from the past. Therefore weight it is possible to deceive infinitely, and the same promises. It is easy to do it especially that masses is eager for it. Masses wants that to them flattered, paid compliments, glorified them and promised unrealizable things - in a word that them deceived. And in it one more their similarity to women. It is possible to deceive the one who wants to be deceived who has it a need and constantly resorts to self-deception. "If the crowd asks the moon from the sky, - G. Lebon sarcastically notices, - that she needs to promise it". As we see, the way to deception of masses lies through their self-deception. Niccolo Machiavelli it is thin I noticed what to subordinate crowd is means to mislead it, to deceive; to try to bring to reason her - means to fall its victim". Portrait of the President at office of private firm - nostalgia on a firm hand and political stability. It is melancholy for an era when the personal civil liability was dissolved in the collective will operated by leaders. This desire to find predictable tomorrow, without putting to it any personal efforts. On November 7, 2007 in Kiev there took place an action, under the auspices of All-Ukrainian youth public organization "National Alliance". Action was dated to 90 - to the anniversary of the Great October socialist revolution. It was the dramatized representation on Mikhaylovskaya Square. Scenario simple: destruction of a symbolical wall of crimes of communism and burning of communistic symbols. The leader of the Kiev center "Natsalyansa" of Mladen Kachurets, declared in interview to the correspondent of one of the central newspapers: "We will bury Lenin, Stalin's portraits, communistic leaders of Ukraine: Khrushcheva, Kosiora, those who was involved in the Holodomor in Ukraine. Besides, during an action speech of representatives of public organizations and a hike to office of communists are provided a moment of silence in honor of memory of victims of the Holodomor. This campaign becomes peculiar "a funeral procession". We plan to leave to communists a coffin with their symbols under doors of their office". The circle became isolated. Than not Turkmen scenario? We it is dramatized buried portraits of old leaders. Time came to draw new …


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