Red mill, yellow dust

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- You know, Nikolay, - Vasily Gerasimovich Stakhorsky told me, - wanted to vote for one party, its program was pleasant to me but after her leader told that hunger in Ukraine never was, I was disappointed in it and voted for other party. I will tell you about the childhood, and you think.

In the eighty three years Vasily Gerasimovich in detail remembers all events of the life, all participants of these events and their exact dates. The story is provided with the minimum changes.


In 1928 at my father was three horses: Mashk's gray mare, black stallion Voronchik and red stallion Boy. Before the collectivization a mare the father sold, and horses left.

In the winter when both to people, and horses there is nothing to do, old men arranged jumps on horses. They brought to the street of the favourite horses, put on them young guys and let them competing in speed from the Varvariny corner (nowadays - Oktyabrsky Avenue and Ostap Vishni St. corner) to a chugunka as then called the railroad. One owner on our quarter had a speckled horse by whom that was praised as the most quick racer. But the bay Boy overtook this horse, than the father terribly was proud.

The father had an earth on Andriyevsky's farm (the area of state farm of Shevchenko) which it processed together with the brother of the wife. During collectivization the father hesitated - to enter collective farm or not. Mother of it didn't want, cried, said that will select horses, and all family from owners becomes farm laborers. But the father on an insistent elder brother's advice everything is entered collective farm. The farm laborer it didn't become though lost horses and put on.

Grigory, the younger brother of the father, didn't begin to enter collective farm, remained the individualist. On it imposed the first tax which it paid, then the second. Grigory поднатужился which - that sold, but also paid this tax. The third tax which has followed right there couldn't be paid already. On account of a tax it was necessary to hand over forty kilograms of meat irrespective of, you hold cattle or not; 160 pieces of the eggs, two hundred fifty liters of milk from a cow and are a lot of that else. Besides, the tax assessed each fruit-tree or a bush is more senior than three years.

From Grigory took away the house and all property, and him with the wife and the small child, and also the grandma living with them exposed on the street. The only thing that it was succeeded to defend and that wasn't required to the state is the black polished coffin on legs which the grandma prepared to death and stored on an attic. In a coffin I was also a parcel with wedding clothes in which it was necessary to bury her. The old woman was lucky, she was taken away by the eldest son.

In 1930 - the m to me was to year six years old, I grazed cows from six mornings to the evening.

In 1932 - m to year of cows destroyed, and I dressed in an old jacket without sleeves of the elder brother of the father and put in big boots filled by straw, was sent to school. The teacher Susanna Ivanovna supplied me with the writing-book used up by a pencil over which I and wrote with the handle. But I studied not for long.

Once during a lesson at a door someone knocked. Susanna Ivanovna opened a door, and I saw behind it the father. I understood - something happened. The father came to take away me from school: "In collective farm there is for you a work. Give two plates of coffee".

So I became a collective farmer with earnings 1/2 workdays. On the central yard expelled eleven pigs whom I had to graze. Coffee appeared the muddy wish-wash filled for a sytnost whether oats, whether barley.

I brought home the residents of Kozelsk who have been dug out on a pasture, the father - a horse sorrel and an orach, elder sister made from this a dinner.

So was until there were first green apricots and collective-farm peas which I stole to live.

In the spring my "pig farm" transferred to other place. Somebody Menk who has strongly swelled up for hunger was the watchman in a pigsty. Having seen at me peas, he asked to bring and to it, but not young, but old because in it there is less than moisture...

Then pigs again overtook on a new place, around state farm "Vanguard". The harvest approached. People secretly scissors cut off green wheat that as - that to live. And only during harvest began to feed to satiety. To collective farmers paid for work one kilogram of bread a day, and that who sent bread about a kosarok, bread gave in plenty.

Before September first I passed a rain. Having tired out pigs in a pigsty, we settled in a dugout to sleep. At night the father on foot came from Bogoyavlensky, woke me and told that I threw everything and went home. I shed a few tears from - for separations from the pigs to which in a year I got used a little, but the desire to study was stronger, and I went home.

There me washed, washed and sent to school.

Our son-in-law Pavel (my grandfather on Pavel Simonovich Matveev's mother - N.P.) from where - that had a horse and small, there are slightly more four wheels, vehicle. Once to it came and told: "Harness, we will carry dead men". I went with it and I.

Opposite to us there lived the cripple from the birth by nickname Fuchikh which could do nothing. She invited the girl of 14-15 years to dig a kitchen garden. After Fuchikh's work I fed it with something and I laid to have a rest in an outer entrance hall on a ryadyuzhka. The girl fell asleep and didn't wake up, died in a dream. We with Pavel entered an outer entrance hall, he took a ryadyuzhka from the head, I at feet, shipped it on the cart and brought to a cemetery. To me, to the eight-year-old boy, the girl was remembered well, such she was beautiful. And still it before my eyes.

On a cemetery the big hole in which dumped corpses was dug. Dead men brought on carts, brought in cars, on sheets... We with Pavel put the girl in this hole and covered with a ryadyuzhka on which she fell asleep an eternal rest.


In 1947 I worked as the loader in port in Nikolaev where went every day on foot from October. Daily on raid of port stood to fourteen vessels of Liberti firm which we called simply "либертосами". Everyone "либертос" took aboard not less than ten thousand tons of wheat, and were still with the displacement of twelve, fourteen and sixteen thousand tons. These after Nikolaev were loaded in addition in Odessa.

Winter of special work in port wasn't therefore by winter of loaders reduced. One man family worked for us. It was not thick, but very chubby. I saw in lists on reduction the surname and I began to cry. There was a deputy chief of port Boguslavsky, and the man with tears in the eyes asked not to dismiss him as his family will die from hunger. "You the person of the patient, - Boguslavsky answered, - look to itself for other work. People healthy" here are necessary to me. The man began to cry and departed. Paid at that time to loaders one kilogram of bread a day.

Till December fifteenth of the forty sixth year of kilograms of white loaf I cost two rubles seventy kopeks, but almost nobody took it because it was expensive. Took generally gray bread for ninety kopeks. The kilogram of sugar cost three rubles fifty kopeks.

For delay for work about twenty minutes the administrative punishment, over twenty minutes - a penalty of 25% of a salary within four months was necessary.Truancy - one year of prison, small theft - also one year of prison.

My sister Eudoxia worked at an elevator. At the very beginning of December, 1946 at it at a search on a checkpoint found in underwear a grain handful. For it it was banished for one year in Komi by the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.

The new decree of 15.12.46 toughened punishments, and at the same time and raised food prices. Gray bread rose in price four times and cost three rubles sixty kopeks for kilogram, sugar - twelve rubles. It when wheat in "libertosakh" departured abroad. Small theft and truancy "cost" now five years of prison.

One woman went to a field to collect the cones which have remained after cleaning. The horse trainer found it behind this occupation and shot. The woman still had two little daughters. The horse trainer judged and sentenced to one year of prison, but soon justified and let out.

Two collective farmers received for two heads of cabbage for five years of prison.

The foreman of fish farm gave to three fishermen on kilogram тюльки from a catch and for five years was banished to Siberia.

Such cases there was a great variety.

The collective-farm pension made eight kilograms of a flour and a bottle of vegetable oil or eleven rubles with kopeks.

The father as I live would look now, would tell: "Vaska and you in paradise! You have all"...


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