What to do and where to run to nikolayevets happen that? At school lessons of civil defense we firmly acquired that in case of any danger the civilians can always take cover in so-called air-raid shelters. Where they are, and whether they will suffice on all residents, correspondents of NZNlearned
If tomorrow war …
It, certainly, exaggeration. Today, when already more than half a century we see exclusively clear sky over the head, it is heavy to us to present that at night in the hometown explosions and shots can be distributed that on its streets there can go tanks, and to be on a silver platter bombs. However a few other dangers can threaten our city and its inhabitants. Absolutely close from us there is the South Ukrainian nuclear power plant. 126 enterprises which are identified as potentially dangerous work at the territory of Nikolaev, 16 of them - chemically dangerous, other are defined as explosion - and ecologically dangerous. What to do and where to run to nikolayevets happen that? At school lessons of civil defense we firmly acquired that in case of any danger the civilians can always take cover in so-called air-raid shelters. Where they are, and whether they will suffice on all residents, correspondents of NZN learned.
Confidential air-raid shelters
From Soviet period at each large manufacturing enterprise there is the air-raid shelter calculated on the greatest shift. And how people who at the moment of danger will be not at work, and at home? For them shelters in cellars of houses or near them were constructed tens years ago. However their exact site isn't known. If earlier on all buildings where there is an air-raid shelter, the plate informing citizens on it hung, now in our city of such plates almost didn't remain. We addressed to the head of department concerning emergency situations and protection of the civilian population of the city of NikolaevTo Alexander Gerasimene. It gave the written answer to our questions.In it it is said that information on quantity and the locations of air-raid shelters is closed and intends only for office using. Why suddenly saving places became a secret, isn't reported. In search of open information we addressed to history. On November 27, 2001 in the Evening Nikolaev newspaper there was an article "Bombardment Any Is Not Terrible Here". Her author -E. Kurasa, referring to the head of a municipal government of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of that time V. Rakov, claims that in the city about 250 air-raid shelters are. In 4 years, other author of this edition -I. Nierigai, too I attended to a question of air-raid shelters. In the material she writes that in the territory of our area is registered 1147 protective underground constructions, but really remained, at best, a half of them."Many constructions simply became useless, after all funds for their repair and the contents many years"weren't allocated, - I. Nierigai writes. Well, at least we already have approximate idea of quantity of air-raid shelters. Riddle there is why if earlier this information was freely provided and printed in mass media, now suddenly I became confidential. Today other figure is given in the official answer of a gorupravleniye of the Ministry of Emergency Situations."In shelters of municipal property which take place under houses, the shelter of 8 920 people"is possible, - it is spoken in it. Not really iridescent figure for the city with the semi-million population.
Where they изчезают?
The chief of a municipal government of MSCh admits that fact that in recent years the quantity of shelters considerably decreased. In his opinion, one of the reasons privatization of the state enterprises is. New owners of protective constructions who are privatized as basements, don't recognize in them existence of shelters. The former macaroni factory which is to the address of Korabelov St. is given as an example, 2. The new owner constructed there lechebno - an improving complex, and a shelter destroyed. And it not the only example in our city. Not one ten air-raid shelters is reconstructed today under shops, bars, saunas or is used as warehouse. According to the law, in a peace time owners of air-raid shelters are allowed to use them for needs of the enterprise, but not to occupy more than 60% of their area.That is, the owner can suit in a shelter a warehouse or something another, but in case of need it will be obliged to free the room for the shortest term. It is strictly forbidden to carry out re-planning of rooms, to block and put passes. Whether it is possible after the private sauna or shop located in an air-raid shelter? One more reason of reduction of quantity of air-raid shelters A. Gerasimenya calls physical and moral obsolescence of construction designs and their equipment. 90% of shelters of municipal property were constructed during the period from 1948 to 1958, and some of them in general in pre-war years. For this reason the part of shelters doesn't meet the state standards and is subject to removal from the account.
From informal sources we knew of the main problems of air-raid shelters. The employee of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of one of the next areas in a personal meeting told the correspondent of NZN that when checking the protective constructions called by air-raid shelters, the mass of violations which do stay of people in them impossible, and sometimes even senseless emerges. For example, all air-raid shelters have to be equipped with a special heavy metal door with a latch and rubber isolation. The door has to be closed hermetically and as though preserve a shelter, without giving to radiation, gases and other dangerous substances to get in the room. And so, it appears that in many shelters integrity of this rubber isolation round a door is broken, sometimes it happens is painted or torn that is inadmissible. One more serious problem is lack of filters in ventilation system. According to experts, such filters cost very much. Therefore in the majority of shelters they didn't change decades, they finished an expiration date or they simply got littered. Therefore, if in a shelter there are some hundred people, not the fact that they will be able normally to breathe in a vault. Dampness - one more factor putting a shelter out of commission. As the employee of the Ministry of Emergency Situations, wished to remain unnamed claims, from - for raisings of level of ground waters some shelters were partially impounded. From - for dampness people won't be able to be there a long time. This opinion supports andPyotr Baklarov, director of Niiproyektrekonstruktion institute.He says that for the last 15 years level of ground waters in Nikolaev rose by some meters that led to flooding not only cellars of houses, but also air-raid shelters which are much more deeply. Far not in all shelters there are gas masks. Earlier they were prepared on all, including small children. For many years nobody cared of their correct storage, the term of use of many of them expired long ago, and new gas masks aren't present.
Four million on repair
Only 40% of shelters of Nikolaev are in a satisfactory condition. This picture is typical for all areas of Ukraine. Minister of emergency situationsVladimir Shandrarecently I made the statement on this subject. He told that the Ukrainian air-raid shelters are in the started state. Only those from them which are near especially dangerous objects meet necessary standards. According to the minister, there is a problem of financing and legislative providing. In particular, it is legislatively necessary to oblige to watch air-raid shelters of owners of large private enterprises near which they are located."Now we left with an initiative that those investments which the enterprises make in the contents in proper condition such shelters, went to the expense", - the minister noted. The maintenance of protective constructions is financed by their owners. It is natural that the state enterprises still as - that watch it, and here to private traders absolutely to spit on them. The air-raid shelters which are in municipal property, are financed from the local budget. For their reduction in a ready state the City Council decision of 28.02.2008 No. 22/17 approved "The program for restoration of protective properties of shelters of municipal property of city council of Nikolaev for 2008-2012" which provides carrying out repair work of rooms and life support systems of shelters at the expense of the local budget. Acquisition and repair of the special equipment - at the expense of subventions of the state budget. Implementation of the program requires 3 million 733 thousand hryvnias. This year it was allocated 299 thousand UAH for carrying out repair work. Whether will help to condition this money air-raid shelters - will show time. And today, to hide from bombs and technogenic catastrophes, to us, dear readers, practically there is no place.