Today the most widespread primary fire extinguishing means are fire extinguishers of different types and brands. In the territory of Ukraine and CIS countries there are many enterprises which let out and realize similar production. In the territory of the Nikolaev area for this time about ten specialized subjects of managing who offer for ensuring fire safety on objects, in housing and on motor transport the modern certified fire extinguishers with necessary technical documentation are engaged in sale of fire extinguishers.
According to the International technical committee on prevention and suppression of fires on the average about 20% of fires of total of them in the world are liquidated by primary fire extinguishing means, namely fire extinguishers. At the same time, in Ukraine by means of fire extinguishers of fires about 8% are liquidated much less.
Probably, it occurs for the following reasons:
- - low-security with primary fire extinguishing means of objects, especially housing stock;
- - lack of information of the population in rules of application of primary fire extinguishing means, especially fire extinguishers of new samples;
- - misunderstanding of heads of separate establishments, the enterprises, the organizations of importance of ensuring objects the high-quality certified fire extinguishers for the purpose of elimination of fires in an initial stage.
At acquisition of fire extinguishers it is necessary to check compliance of marking of the fire extinguisher, existence and contents of technical data sheet of the fire extinguisher and the maintenance instruction, existence of the certificate of conformity.
In the passport the fire extinguisher have to be specified: general information about the fire extinguisher, fire extinguisher type, its technical characteristics, ognetushashchy ability, the principle of action, the instruction on safety of use, a fire extinguishing order, a maintenance order, guarantee certificates of the producer. Besides, in the passport addresses of the organizations which carry out maintenance of fire extinguishers have to be specified.
Fire extinguishers on object have to be established in readily available places with ensuring their protection against influence of direct sunshine and operations of heating devices at the height no more than 1,5 m
Once a month it is necessary to do external survey of the fire extinguisher. Thus to check existence and integrity of a safety lock zaporno - the starting equipment and pressure indicator (the zakachnykh of fire extinguishers concerns powder). The arrow of the indicator of pressure has to be in a green zone. At operation of the fire extinguisher or receiving negative results of external survey, and also after the termination of a warranty period of operation (12 months) the fire extinguisher needs to be sent to specialized point of carrying out maintenance. Also annually fire extinguishers have to be subject to maintenance.
By results of carrying out maintenance the corresponding mark is entered in technical data sheet of the fire extinguisher, and directly on the fire extinguisher case - a label with the indication of point of maintenance and term of carrying out maintenance.
It is separately necessary to inform on such ognetushashchy chemical, as frother. By means of frother and water under pressure foam for suppression of fires with availability of flammable and combustible liquids, synthetic substances and polymers is created.
Today a large amount of frothers of production of Ukraine, Russia, the European Union countries, the USA is used. At the same time, for all of them there are uniform requirements to indicators the qualities determined by state standards. For each brand of frother it agrees to the specifications developed on it there are such main numerical indicators, as frequency rate of the created foam, its firmness, density of the frother, his hydrogen indicator and moistening ability. At the same time, all these indicators have to be in the limits determined by state standards. Standard it is necessary for confirmation of compliance of indicators of quality of frother annually, after his warranty period of operation determined by the producer in specifications, to carry out laboratory researches.
Without fail each frother, as well as fire extinguishers, and other products of fire-prevention appointment, has to have the certificate of conformity.
According to information исследовательско - the GU Ministry of Emergency Situations test laboratory of Ukraine in the Nikolaev area