After falling of the Iron Curtain by mass movement of the Ukrainian citizens through border it is difficultly to surprise. Tens of thousands go abroad to learn, hundreds thousands - to have a rest, millions - to work. The most part comes back, but many and remain. And let the departure problem on PZhM is particularly acute in recent years any more so, but it got new aspect - national.
The checked methods
If to take total of migrants in attention, Ukraine surely sticks in recent years in ten (and even the five) to world leaders. By different calculations outside the homeland are from four and a half people to nine million. But, as we know, all these millions almost full structure get over through border only for temporary financial reasons - "заробитчанами" the vast majority of migrants is.
Unlike immemorial aspiration to earn it is more, departure for the PERMANENT RESIDENCE becomes every year all less popular. At the beginning of the ninetieth annual number of "refugees" it was estimated in hundred thousands left. Then it was a question mainly of population redistribution between the former federal republics and trip abroad long ago citizens dreaming of it. In a new century the number of emigrants is reduced every year: from seventy - eighty thousand a year in 2001-2002 to eight people with small thousands which, according to Goskomstat, managed to leave Ukraine for the first half of the year of the current year.
On comparison with Post-Soviet boom when the Ukrainians dreaming of foreign life, got over abroad "though in a suitcase though a chuchelok" for today the most popular ways of emigration are the checked methods: from some unreliable "to learn and remain" or "to work and be fixed" to long ago tested "to leave in marriage / to marry" or "to raise money and to move".
Besides clear desire semeyno uncomfortable Ukrainians to find the happiness in whenever possible foreign countries, in the most reliable ways to leave the homeland there is a prize of the USA - lotteries or business - emigration.Chance to receive residence permit in the USA it is far not such illusive as can seem at first. Since 1990 it is raffled on 50 thousand "грин - cards" annually, for receiving one of which it is enough to live in the country - the participant of the program and to have the finished secondary education and enough luck. The fate loves Ukrainians: the right on "грин - the card-2008" was acquired by more than five thousands of our compatriots (5-е a place on the world and 1-е a place in Europe by quantity won) - a little, but it is already pleasant for potential emigrants.
For the same who prefers reliability, more acceptable method on - former is considered business - emigration. In principle, for receiving residence permit in many countries it is enough to have in them real estate, business and in detail to tell in embassy about readiness to love the new homeland. But in the popular states among immigrants programs for attraction checked business - shots work for a long time. Successfully to emigrate to Australia, it is necessary to promise to please national economy in 150 thousand dollars, to Canada - from 50 thousand, the European countries within the former Warsaw pact "manage" cheaper. At last, it is possible to hope for "professional" immigration (from the European countries the abundance of profile programs distinguishes Great Britain), only for this purpose it is necessary to have the "correct" education and the profession necessary to a host. As a last resort in a stock always there is a political fleeing. Though, recently it is possible to use an oppression ghost not political much more successfully, but national - migration on an ethnic sign becomes more and more popular trend.
Russia - the mother
On Soviet and the former Soviet Union Israel became the pioneer in a question of national focused emigration. By and large, in the early nineties the considerable percent fell on potential citizens of the Promised land Ukrainian leaving on the PERMANENT RESIDENCE. By the end of the ninetieth - the beginning two-thousand the palm of emigrant appeal was intercepted by Germany which was ready to accept not only insignificant number of the local Germans who have returned from Stalin exile, but also to take away potential citizens from the same Israel, after all even real estate in Germany, for example, in Bavaria it was possible to buy for kopeks.And, at last, the real break of the last years was urged to become ноу - Hau of the Russian authorities - to solve demographic and economic problems due to return to the historical homeland of ethnic Russians.
To have opportunity to leave the homeland according to the Program of assistance it isn't so obligatory for voluntary resettlement of compatriots to prove existence of the Russian roots to the thirteenth knee. It is enough to potential immigrants to show that they "the compatriots who have been brought up in traditions of the Russian culture, knowing Russian and not wishing to lose touch with Russia". Proved the devotion the Russian paradigm can submit an application and to collect things: federal bodies pay all costs of moving (both transport, and "luggage" expenses), compensates expenses on paperwork and undertakes to provide all necessary "social sphere". And on places already local authorities will have to employ conscious compatriots and (whenever possible) housing - let not to give out "for so", but at least to provide preferential terms for its acquisition.
Despite appeal of conditions of the program starting in 2006, "a suitcase - the station - Russia" not so is a lot of adherents of implementation of idea. In news there are sad messages more often and - la "In Priamurye arrived 47 questionnaires within the program for resettlement of compatriots" or "In one and a half years to the Lipetsk region 429 compatriots moved". Initially within the project for the solution of problems of natural losses of the population and shortage of a manpower it was supposed to involve hardly all 30 million Russians whom ideologists of the program counted in the near and far abroad. Over time experts already carefully exorcized about "development" about 4 million immigrants for all the time of action of the program, and by the end of 2007 that to 2012 is supposed "to entice" less than 700 thousand emigrants.
Failures of the project (in 2007 instead of fifty thousand about eight thousand people moved) often explain unavailability of regions: while for immigrants there is neither enough of workplaces, nor housing. But in many respects the problem is that the regions provided for resettlement (many of which depressive) inspire insignificant number of immigrants. The logic of the authorities is clear: it is necessary to lift suburbs. The logic of potential immigrants - is even more clear: why to change a pricker for soap or even to worsen the present situation.The program of resettlement appealing to patriotic feelings, not that failed, but gloss of prospects doesn't show. After all people prefer to agree that is more favorable.
Window to Europe
Against some doubtful prospects which are developed before the Ukrainian Russians by their fatherland, the offer of other historical homeland looks more seductive. In the spring of 2008 the Polish authorities declared the readiness to help compatriots by creation of "the card of the Pole". And, if to compare given opportunities, it is much more favorable to Ukrainians to appear Poles, than Russians.
The Polish government assumes to give out more than one million "cards of the Pole". By number of potential applicants Lithuania (400 thousand), Belarus (250 thousand) and Ukraine (140 thousand) are in the lead. It isn't known, whether it will turn out to be enclosed at Poles in the declared rates (to give out 100-200 thousand certificates already in the current year), but for the beginning of July already 3 thousand Ukrainians hastened to recognize the ethnic origin to neighbors.
It is possible to understand "Ukraine - Poles". Unlike Russia or Israel anybody on the PERMANENT RESIDENCE to Poland doesn't call citizens of Ukraine. But thus the Polish government provides to the compatriots very and very pleasant bonuses. The owner of "card" can count on the free long-term Polish visa with the right of repeated crossing of border, on the right to work in Poland without need to receive on this permission, on the right to be engaged in business activity on the general with citizens of Poland the bases and to get a free education on the historical homeland. And at the same time "the card of the Pole" provides also pleasant trifles, like a 37-percentage discount for train tickets and free visit of the museums. It would seem, anything special, Poland - not a center of the universe, and should the most safe country. But thus, it is any more Ukraine, and the European Union. And therefore prospects of legal work and the free diploma which is quoted in Europe, turn the heads to many potential participants of the program.
It isn't so simple to receive "the card of the Pole". For this purpose it is necessary to know at least at a basic level Polish, to prove presence of Poles among not really remote ancestors (isn't more senior" both great-grandmothers, and the great-grandfather), and it is desirable - also to provide the reference that the competitor actively worked not less than three years on Polish cultural - an educational field.Despite all restrictions, the card of the Pole was apprehended with such enthusiasm that it already managed to call potential blow to statehood of Lithuania, Ukraine and Belarus. It is improbable that opportunity to improve life of the non Polish Poles considerably will strike on a demography of all listed countries, but here a small wave of emigration can provoke - even such window to Europe very attractively looks.
Due to the active introduction of national focused programs of immigration or assistance to compatriots opponents of emigration started worrying. Main argument: and so millions left abroad to work, why to promote outflow provocation still bigger number of citizens, especially for permanent residence - there will be absolutely nobody to live and work. Similar fears against insignificant scales in which the Russian program of assistance to resettlement of compatriots poured out, and initially seriously limited conditions of receiving "the card of the Pole" look unreasonably. It is improbable that on the similar national basis, Ukraine will be left by more than several tens of thousands people.
Economic losses in the remote prospect can appear more considerable. Conditions of the program of resettlement to Russia are interesting more to inhabitants depressive and in Ukraine to rural areas which thanks to open opportunities of internal and external migration risk considerably to become deserted. "The card of the Pole" in turn can provoke departure abroad considerable number of youth Polish or about the Polish origin for which study and work prospects in Europe can be more interesting, than the Ukrainian opportunities.
In either case appeal of "fashionable" migratory ideas "is fed up" by difficulties of life in Ukraine. Eurosceptics can always wish to potential migrants happy journey, and taking into account national orientation of emigration also to add: "Ukraine for Ukrainians". But while opportunities for comfortable life for the Ukrainian citizens are limited, the programs similar to "the card of the Pole", will cause hot enthusiasm from their potential objects. "The card of the Czech", "the card of the Greek", "the card of the Romanian", "the card of the Bulgarian" - such way to Europe one ten thousand people could remove not.And a question here at all in lack of patriotism at representatives of ethnic minorities, and that temptation which is represented by open borders and wide prospects. It appear now Ukraine in the European Union with all opportunities of free movement, education and legal employment - it isn't excluded that the number "заробитчан", aspiring by all means to return home, could decrease a little.
Probably, "there to them also it is expensive", and there have to be only most "conscious". But to replace outflow of a manpower everything - it is necessary. As shows the Russian experiment, it isn't necessary to count on compatriots. To that the analog of "the card of the Pole" in Ukraine exists since 2004 when the law on the status of foreign Ukrainians was issued. The persons possessing this status, can receive the free reusable five-year visa and have the right for "extraordinary" immigration. Only not so there is a lot of registered foreign Ukrainians, and the majority of them doesn't hurry to come back to the historical homeland. It is necessary therefore to hope or for growth of number of immigrants from the countries in which is even worse, than at us (that isn't really perspective in general, and taking into account increase in degree of xenophobia in society - while at all it is undesirable), or for consciousness of own citizens. And it is necessary for increase of consciousness not only okolopatriotichny education. From the good country and there is no need to emigrate.