Shipyard in the Wild field

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This year 220 years to plant of a name 61-of guo Kommunar were executed. The oldest ship вервь became the city-forming enterprise and laid the foundation to development of monoeconomic economy of all region. Welfare of the population of the city and adjacent lands depended on results of work of the Admiralty.

"Gold" ships

Today all know that the territory of Northern Black Sea Coast was freed from Turks in the second half of the XVIII century during two русско - the Turkish wars. New lands demanded economic development to approve the Russian Empire on the Black Sea. The first cities in the Wild field had to begin with construction of shipyards. Grigory Potemkin first was mistaken with a place choice. For the first shipyard he chose the delta of Dnepr near Kherson and at once regretted about it. The sea here small, the river on the average a current is covered with thresholds and therefore the mouth brought silt. It was very difficult to remove the large sea ships on such waterway. The field marshal makes the order to build new shipyard in that place where the Southern Bug and Ingul merge. Potemkina here attracted deep-water harbor which is rather removed from the high sea to undergo unexpected attack of the opponent. He orders to put here two sailing vessels. The commander-in-chief hurries with construction of the first-born of Ingulsky shipyard - a 44-gun frigate "Saint Nikolay" as Catherine II disagrees to give the status of the city of Nikolaev, there is no first ship yet. The vessel was constructed on a new place in only 8,5 months. Eight and a half months - cosmic speed for the XVIII century. Contractors on old English shipyards in the Rumble did similar work in one and a half years, in the Spanish Cartagena - in 15 months, in the French Brest - in two years. The large ship-building centers of Europe settled down near the developed industrial regions. Nearby there were sailing manufactories, steel, ironworks works and weapon factories. All necessary infrastructure for construction of the military ships was formed here centuries. Construction of a military frigate in the deserted steppe for record-breaking short terms demanded intense efforts of all participants of the project and … money.How many cost for the state the first frigate of the Black Sea fleet "Saint Nikolay"? The budget cost of the ship on sources doesn't manage to track. Most likely, these documents are lost for us. However it is possible to determine total figures of expenses by analogy to expenses for construction of such standard vessels, having recognized a small error in calculations.

In 1773 the Russian government ordered in England two 46-gun frigates without arms (English tools didn't approach on the caliber under the Russian sea regulations). The cost of the order made 42 thousand gold rubles. Respectively one vessel without artillery costed 21000. The average sea tool with the demidovskikh of plants managed to the state at that time 89 rubles. We multiply 46 on 89, we add on result to a total cost of the ship and we receive the required sum - 25094 rubles. All overhead costs, profit of Demidov enter this figure and Birmingham contractors. How many the state should have constructed "Saint Nikolay" in the Wild field? Yury Kryuchkov provides V. F. Golovachov's curious quote which a lot of things clear up in the history of the city: "… Here from internal Russia for construction of vessels it was necessary to bring the woods, to cast tools, to forge anchors, to twist ropes. Here not only it was necessary to gather a huge number of workmen, as - that: carpenters, smiths, sailing vessels, caulkers, founders and any sea experts - it was still necessary to find new best norm, on the basis of any climatic and local conditions. And it was for this purpose necessary to have experts voyenno - sea and construction business. Schools were necessary; acquisition of experience which is given not differently, than at big to time expense" was necessary. Lack of communications and industrial infrastructure increased costs for a vessel construction. On how many? Delivery of the wood, metal, canvas by land made about 30% of product cost of the central Russia. Progonny and fodder money (travelers) for workmen added another 20% to the general expenses. Shed cost (depreciation) which has to be repaid gradually in each constructed ship, - another 10%. Total 60% to the initial cost of the final product. We won't take into account construction of shops, warehouses, barracks for crews, etc. which also increased account part of the budget of the project. Approximately "Saint Nikolay" cost to the government 41 thousand gold rubles. One ship at the price of two English frigates.Any private investor wasn't able to afford luxury to finance such order. Only the state which is based on political tasks, decided on such expenses. The first Nikolaev vessels "Saint Nikolay", "Grigory Velikiya of Armenia", vessels - акаты "St. Irina" and No. 2 - were "gold" for the podatny population of the empire, but exactly thanks to them our city started being approved as the ship-building center in Northern Black Sea Coast.

Effective owners

With Potemkin's death shipbuilding on the Black Sea stopped. Subsequently, thanks to the Chief commander of the Black Sea fleet and ports Ivan Ivanovich de Traverse, again start building military fleet. 6 sailing vessels were for a short time put. In the city there was a small infrastructure of shipbuilding, there was a steady group of merchants - subcontractors who supplied shipyard with all necessary under long-term contracts. Nikolaev, any more on paper, becomes the main center of military shipbuilding on the Black Sea. It recognizes the government in Sankt - Petersburg and decides to create here special voyenno - an administrative unit - the Nikolaev and Sevastopol military governorship. It included Nikolaev, Sevastopol and those settlements which worked for the Black Sea fleet. Subsequently in Nikolaevsk the admiralty the huge number of the military ships started being under construction. At Alexey Samuilovich Greyge the number of vessels on the Black Sea was brought to the staff list and the first 120-gun ships are put. The budget cost of each project on the Nikolaev shipyard on - former exceeds similar construction on the Baltic and Voronezh shipyards. Lack of available communications in the south of the Russian Empire affects. The admiral Lazarev continued business of Greyga. At it the sailing fleet on the Black Sea became the most efficient. Mikhail Petrovich convinces the sea ministry to start building the steam ships. The decision to create in Nikolaev steamship plant, but, unfortunately, in 1851 Lazarev was made died and this idea wasn't realized. After the Crimean war long time on the Black Sea Russia was forbidden to contain and build military fleet, and only in 70-е years the Nikolaev admiralty starts the new large project. It starts building battleships. It were the military ships of a round form - "popovka" called by name the author - the designer Andrey Aleksandrovich Popov. The project was unsuccessful. Vessels showed unsatisfactory road and shunting performance.However already at this time it is possible to claim with confidence that in Nikolaev there was all necessary ship-building infrastructure. The budgetary cost of construction of one military ship on Baltic and in Nikolaevsk the Admiralty was made even. This circumstance allowed to commercialize branch officially. In 1911 there was an idea of creation of the largest ship-building enterprise in the south of Russia of Russud plant ("The Russian ship-building society", today - plant of 61-guo Kommunara) which was included in trust. Having received in free rent for 25 years the Nikolaev Admiralty and large advance payment from the Sea ministry, the Russud plant administration urgently started radical reconstruction of shipyard. She managed to create in a short space of time the modern enterprise suitable for construction of the ships of any displacement. After the approval of the new program of construction of the Black Sea fleet financial numbers of the empire and Sankt - the Petersburg international commercial bank decided to go in for shipbuilding. Many eminent persons of the Sea ministry and members of an imperial surname became shareholders of new society. Therefore the bank wasn't limited to rent of the Nikolaev Admiralty and started using widely inzhenerno - technical shots from state plants." Russudu" was succeeded to secure the order for construction of two linear ships ("Empress Maria" and "Emperor Alexander III"), and to Nawal plant (modern ChSZ), possessing strong production base, it was necessary to be content with the order only on one linear ship ("the Empress Catherine II"). Merge of Nawal and Russud plants in uniform trust turned this association into the monopolist in the south of the country. Shareholders of trust controlled the diversified enterprises for all Russia. It allowed to lower internal costs of production due to preferential holding operations and to create "the closed cycle" where all - from nailing to the turbine - was made at the enterprises entering into trust. Effective administrative management and decrease in unproductive expenses made this monopoly the most successful financially - the production project in the history of plant. Unfortunately, the period of prosperity proceeded not for long. Civil war and intervention didn't allow to complete 15 destroyers on the Black Sea. After war the part of these ships was sorted and used for completion of other ships or sold on demolition. In Soviet period the plant 61-of guo Kommunar "dropped out" of a market orbit and began to work in a mode of a planned economy.Its production activity on - former was focused on civil and military shipbuilding, repair of vessels and the ships.

Inefficient owners

For all history of plant more than 2000 ships and vessels were constructed and repaired. Today the total area of the enterprise makes 1414,5 thousand square meters, the building area - 476,5 thousand sq.m. Capacities of plant are concentrated in 286 industrial buildings and 165 industrial constructions. Construction of cases of vessels is conducted on three building slip places, installation and installation of part of the equipment and mechanisms thus is at the same time made. Building berth allow to build and float cases of vessels weighing up to 20000 tons. At plant there is a floating dock which can be used for performance of work on repair of vessels. Loading capacity of dock reaches 7000 tons. Thus, this modern shipyard has all necessary opportunities for independent construction and repair of vessels in full. Now the enterprise has severe times. The unstable political situation in the country doesn't promote the organization of normal administrative management at plant. The ministry промполитики Ukraine organized frequent change of directors and doesn't fulfill the financial obligations. The number of workers was reduced by 10 times, there is a huge debt on a salary, there are pending obligations before clients. Building slip places are taken and don't allow to work with new orders. The cruiser "Ukraine" - a headache. The enterprise long ago bankrupt ("prepare for privatization"). Recently the mayor publicly sounded city claims to plant. There is a sense to quote them completely: "I want to pay attention to one very important circumstance. I mean our intention to reduce territories which occupy shipbuilding plants (ChSZ - 330 hectares, plant of a name 61-of guo Kommunar - 150 hectares, Okean plant - about 180 hectares). The part of these lands isn't used in production, besides, in Europe the shipbuilding is carried out in smaller territories". Everything, the circle became isolated. The city-forming shipyard will "be finished" tomorrow by own creation - a city community of Nikolaev, and today … and today it is still demanded as object for industrial tourism.


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