Information wars and Ukraine. Part 1

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Concerning definition of the concept "information war" many books are written, many copies, etc. are broken. We will try it to make and we. We will understand set of the actions made by means of transfer of information messages as information war, created and transferred in such a way that they do harm to the probable opponent.

They are directed on suppression of its resistance and protective potential for the purpose of receiving a political, economic or cultural superiority. The states, interstate associations, public authorities, commercial and non-profit organizations, and also communities and individuals can be subjects of information war. Object of influence, as a rule, is the public opinion, in particular group opinion of the people making decisions, often objects are public opinions in the environment of political elite. Lever in information war - the information message directed in relation to this audience and processed so that the audience could interpret and react to it properly.

Basic technology on which conducting information war is based, the technology of "spindoktor" is. How it works? Each event even if invented or leaning on unchecked information, is information occasion which can be applied, having given to public the facts in this or that processing. Standardly "spindoktor" is applied in some stages: on stages of preparation for an event there are the background messages which are indirectly concerning any subject, connected with an event, then information on the event actually moves, is frequent in a sensation format. The starting message "acquires" new details (both real, and invented), in mass media there are comments of participants and eyewitnesses, opinions of experts.Further, at the reached resonance effect when the peak of relevance of information is passed, recession of quantity and quality of messages if there are no essentially new data which initiators of influence (or other interested parties) will consider necessary to involve follows. It leads to that further messages to the set subject pass into the category ordinary, their frequency decreases, eventually, to an event only refer or in general it don't mention. Information "emission" can be ahead of schedule leveled artificially - with use of "forcing-out" subjects or information blockade. One more characteristic reception - "descent" of important information on such level of perception where it becomes little significant and even frivolous. Thus, inflaming scandal can or be nipped in the bud, or it is even more звеличить resonant effect from it, at all without applying, let us assume, equipment of distortion of information.

Classical example of application of technology of "spindoktor" - preparation of public opinion, both in global, and in the local plan, to invasion of the USA into Iraq. If to remember chronology of the conflict, it is possible to see that at first the American mass media published statements of officials of the USA that Iraq continues to make the chemical and bacteriological weapon, despite all sanctions (before it there were some forecasts of experts that the USA can intrude in Iraq, but they didn't receive a wide resonance). Though at the same time the special commission of the UN headed by H. Bliks, declared that the new weapon of this kind there isn't found, despite all checks, the USA and the resident mass media focused on global audience, continued to claim that the chemical and biological weapon in Iraq is and therefore Iraq needs to be disarmed forcibly. Started connecting Saddam Hussein's mode with "Al Kayeda's" support and personally Osama bin Laden - such "lethal" argument further, though I didn't maintain criticism (Hussein and bin Laden - rather ideological opponents in the Arab world, than allies and Hussein, as far as we know, supported only the Palestine Liberation Organization led by Yasser Arafat), it was very effective. The purpose, at least, for internal American audience, was reached - military campaign was легитимизирована. However the chemical and biological weapon, as well as capacities where it had to be developed, in Iraq didn't find (apart from several forgotten warehouses still times of Iran - iraky war).

The majority of political scandals in Ukraine if to analyze their chronology, moved on technology of "spindoktor" - at first are started at the level of assumption "sounding" that there can be this event (probability and descriptions of circumstances can be various), further there are first news about the event which starts being made comments actively, doesn't descend from the TV screens, the front pages of newspapers. Then the event causes the lesser interest in public, and it needs to be fed with new statements, comments and the cleared-up details … If it doesn't occur - scandal or is forced out from political life by new scandal, or calms down absolutely and to it start treating as an ordinary event. Besides, the "preparatory" stage often isn't visible to general public which, as a rule, doesn't get a grasp of analytical articles where this stage can be realized. From - for it any political resonant events like recent disintegration of the "orange" coalition are perceived by the public as quite unexpected though they miscalculated in advance including openly in masses - media.

The phenomenon which very similar to is the working mechanism of "spindoktor", but having more "natural" (in a context of spontaneity of emergence, difficulty of management and contributing cultural factors), is called as "political performance". On Gui Deborah, performance, in fact, is all public life of society, as the way of a social production reproducing spatially - temporary communications. Cultural roots of "political performance" is life staging in the European society - from cultural history of Europe it is known, for example, that in the Middle Ages near the "official" way of life impregnated with religiousness and renunciation from all wordly, existed and "is national - carnival" the way of life which is almost direct opposite first. Political performance as that is shown in crisis conditions (at least, all confirmed cases belong to the crisis phenomena - for example, suppression "Prague spring" in Czechoslovakia in 1968 or demolition of the Berlin wall in 1989, become epoch-making and symbolical events) and it can purposefully be created only "under a situation". In general it is quite difficult to distinguish "political performance" from spontaneously arisen crisis situation which for rather long period of time became the main subject in masses - media.By the way, "color revolutions", similar to what occurred in Georgia and Ukraine, have all signs of "political performances" - "theatricality" of the events, the main emphasis at work with media, "picturesqueness" of opposition between opposition and the power, whenever possible - a nonviolent outcome of events, in the final - power change. At skillful management "political performance" it can be exported to other countries - especially as in modern geopolitics it is one of the most effective ways of distribution of the influence. Supporting opposition financially and organizationally, it is possible to replace the government in other country from the outside, without resorting to other, more violent methods. Consequences such "democracy export", "political performance" using the phenomenon, aren't always unambiguous. In Ukraine, for example, "orange revolution", having liquidated Kuchma's semi-authoritarian regime (at the same time - I destroyed an administrative vertical by means of "compromise" constitutional reform, without having created instead of anything else), thereby I strengthened influence of large business on decision-making and dependence of Ukraine on the decisions made by the USA at global level. After all, in particular, metallurgy - the USA and EU countries, therefore, on the Ukrainian exporters can "press" the main sales markets of the Ukrainian export by means of economic sanctions and thus to influence domestic policy of Ukraine, without watching even that the most part of the former "orange" elite is loyal the USA.

If "political performance" is obviously provoked artificially, it is possible to call it successfully realized special information operation. The purpose of such operation in the general context - destruction of the settled hegemony (as way of achievement of consensus in society - on Antonio Gramsha), or creation new. Specific goals can be the following: change of a ruling mode in the "interesting" state, change of ruling elite with more loyal, change of public values and a thinking paradigm, creation of the center of political instability. Key object of influence in information special operations is the political consciousness of elite groups and the intellectuals, acting as hegemony carriers. If object is the political consciousness of not elite groups, in this plan in most cases operation is reduced to emission of the "compromising evidence" reducing trust to elite and blackmail of elite groups both at the expense of declassification of unprofitable information, and due to opposition forcing between them.In case of if the purpose is change of a political regime in this state on more loyal, information operation has usually 3 stages: discredit of the existing power for the purpose of recognition by its society illegitimate, support of "manual" opposition and reduction of this opposition to the power with performance of conditions of the customer of information special operation. General mechanism is as follows:

1) in the beginning the group of people is selected among elite, whose thinking can sharply differ from other elite (it is desirable that these divergences lay in the field of ideological and politically sensitive questions - option of "the fifth column").

2) "promotion" of the new created opposition on classical technology of "spindoktor" in local and global mass media begins (and the internal audience will feel the greatest effect from mass media of the international level as "more authoritative") under slogans a la "The criminal mode X conducts Y country to accident", etc. Internal mass media are created on means, or with support of the customer of information operation. The messages broadcast by mass media, often contain the hidden instructions for potential participants of mass actions. Also the political infrastructure directed on association and "warming up" of protest electorate is created or gathers from already existing party and public organizations.

3) destabilization (in economy - by unauthorized issue of currency, in policy - any loud resignation, provocation against opposition is organized, it is possible - act of terrorism)

is provoked actually

4) "velvet revolution" by mobilization of protest electorate through oppositional mass media and partiyno - public infrastructure will be organized actually. Mass protest actions which have generally nonviolent character and the "dramatized" form begin. The power is presented in mass media as concourse of corrupt officials and opponents of all progressive. Almost obligatory step is conflict internationalization, at first in mass media, and then with involvement of the international organizations. Carrying out early elections which the opposition surely wins the discredited and deprived supports the power is obligatory. The new government anyway carries out tasks of the customer of information special operation (ensuring access on the markets, placement of military bases, joint control over transport corridors, etc.)

In one of the following articles we will analyse from this point of view "orange revolution" 2004.

Maxim Pobokin

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