Ukraine - one of the few European countries possessing a considerable reserve of electrogenerating capacities. In structure of these capacities thermal power plants (thermal power plant) on which nearly 66% of cumulative rated capacity (are the share of nuclear power units - 26%) dominate, and the overwhelming part of these capacities is put into operation still in 60-70-е years of the last century and so far practically developed the resource. Periodic repair and modernization of obsolete Ukrainian thermal power plants demand considerable financial expenses which don't solve a problem of increase of reliability of a power supply system of the country and decrease in environmental pollution by carbon oxides, sulfur and nitrogen.
In recent years especially negatively the condition of thermal power is influenced by work in a shunting mode that is caused by electricity consumption "failure" at night (from 23.00 till 6.00). According to Ministry of Fuel and Energy of Ukraine, night surplus of capacities in Ukraine makes more than 1100 MWt and tends to increase. For use of this surplus and smoothing of the daily schedule of consumption work of the power-intensive industrial enterprises and accumulation of excess energy are used at night. In Ukraine hydroheat-sink stations, warmth development at night and its use in the afternoon are applied. However both types of accumulation are characterized by considerable thermal and hydraulic losses which can reach 35%.
Long operation of outdated thermal power plants in a shunting mode threatens with failure of a power supply system of Ukraine. To prevent it, it is necessary to ensure functioning of thermal power plant in the conditions close to constant loading, i.e.to use for a covering of deficiency of the electric power in the afternoon any other power sources.
For this purpose it is possible to use the industrial gas turbines which have been well adapted for work in a shunting mode. Gas turbines are one of the main components toplivno - a power complex of many countries of the world. Today more than 65% of the new electrogenerating capacities put into operation in the world (basic and shunting modes), are based on use of steam-gas installations (PGU) and the gas-turbine thermal power plants surpassing in many indicators traditional coal-dust steam-turbine stations.
Gas turbines of new generation have high efficiency, are characterized by operational reliability, made around the world and are provided with the developed system of service. They are applied in a wide power range, used in a mode on duty (expectation), for a covering of peak loadings, and also at constant loading. In a power range from 60 to 120 MWt about 60% of gas turbines cover peak loadings, and more than 85% of heavy-duty gas turbines (180 MWt and more) are used for electric power development in a basic mode. For modern power gas-turbine installations the cost of one kilowatt of rated capacity makes 400-700 dollars, for steam-gas - to 1000 dollars. At the same time for coal-dust steam-turbine power plants (the main thermal power plants) its cost already exceeded 1200 dollars
Till 2006 world production of industrial gas turbines was characterized by some instability. Increase in production in 1996 - m was replaced by recession in 1997 - m and growth in 1998-2000. Since 2006 fast lifting of the world market of power gas-turbine construction (see fig.) begins that is caused by a conclusion to the market of gas turbines of new generation. The forecast for the ten-year period (2006-2015) looks favorable and predicts rapid growth of production of industrial gas turbines of various power.
Total of gas turbines which are already made and will be made in the world in 2006-2015, will exceed 12 thousand units. Most of all - 1337 pieces - are planned to make in 2011 (see fig.), however in 2015 - the m production of gas turbines will decrease to 1206 units.It is explained by expected revenues to the market of new power technologies - fuel elements, nuclear power installations of new generation, more active use of industrial and household wastes for energy production, and also essential expansion of use of wind and solar energy.
Annual world costs of production of industrial gas turbines from 2006 to 2015 will exceed 143 bln. dollars (in the pre-crisis prices of 2008), and in 2015 - m they more than twice will exceed level of 2006. Costs of production of the 180 MWt gas turbines and more will be greatest, having made nearly a half of world investments into industrial gas-turbine construction (43,6%, or more than 62 bln. dollars).
The second for the volume of investment (21,8%, or 31,2млрд. dollars) will be gas turbines of big power (125-180 MWt), and the third - gas turbines of average power - from 60 to 125 MWt (9,3%, or 13,25 bln. dollars). The last will be widely used in the world for a covering of peak loadings. In total leading world power engineering companies will make more than 720 gas turbines of average power, including the General Electric company - 386 units, Alstom - 199 units and Rolls-Royce - 63 units
Despite deficiency of natural energy carriers, about 75% of gas turbines with power more than 15 MWt will use natural gas as fuel. Rapid growth of the world prices for gas and difficulty of its delivery to some regions of the world even in the liquefied state will promote increase of a role of coal as power source. Therefore fast development of power gas-turbine construction will be accompanied by development and deployment of new technologies of receiving synthetic gas from coal and other natural energy carriers.
Ukraine makes gas-turbine installations of a simple cycle which can be applied to a covering of deficiency of the electric power in the afternoon and smoothings of load of thermal power. Serial industrial gas turbines with power up to 25 MWt, the 60 MWt gas turbine GTE-60 (GP NPKG "Zorya — Mashproyekt") which will be put into operation soon, and also concern to them the gas turbine российско - the Ukrainian production UGT-110000 with a power of 114 MWt. These turbines aren't inferior to the western analogs on profitability, moreover, the UGT-110000 installation surpasses foreign gas turbines in weight characteristics:weighing about 60 tons its specific weight characteristic makes only 0,52 kg on rated capacity kilowatt.
Due to the wide use of gas as fuel profitability of gas turbines gains special importance. This indicator is important for decrease in a consumption of natural gas for own needs and reduction of emissions in the atmosphere of dioxide of carbon (when burning 1 kg of natural gas 1,8 kg of CO2 are formed), and also harmful oxides of nitrogen and carbon (NOx, DRIED). Achievement of high profitability of gas-turbine installations is connected, first of all, with the size of temperature of products of combustion after the combustion chamber. However at a modern level of development of materials science further temperature increase of products of combustion encounters serious difficulties.
Therefore in recent years intensive development was gained by the gas-turbine installations working on a difficult thermodynamic cycle. To such cycles treat a regenerative cycle (the heat exchanger - a regenerator at the exit of the gas turbine), cycles with intermediate cooling of air in the course of compression or with heating of products of combustion in the course of expansion, supply of steam in flowing part of the gas turbine (STIG technology), supply of steam and water utilization in the condenser at the exit (the Aquarius technology developed in Ukraine), a binary air cycle. Use of difficult thermodynamic cycles allows to increase power and к.п.д. industrial gas-turbine installations without essential increase in temperature of products of combustion and at the expense of it to apply the constructional materials checked by practice and gas-turbine technologies. Development of difficult cycles is connected with design complication, increase in cost of production, results in additional difficulties at operation and maintenance.
One of types of a difficult thermodynamic cycle is the combined steam-gas cycle in which high temperature of products of combustion at the exit from the gas turbine (450-580 °C) is used for steam generation in a copper - the utilizer where fuel, and its subsequent use in the steam turbine moves. Theoretical bases of a steam-gas cycle were developed by the Russian academician S. Khristianovich in 50-е years of the XX Art., but industrially mastered technology in the USA and Germany. The efficiency of modern steam-gas installations in a wide power range makes 40-50%, and in area 400-530mvt reaches 57-60%.Such high positive effect is caused by utilization of warmth of exhaust gases behind the gas turbine in a copper - the utilizer, increase in an expense of a working body via the power turbine and increase of operability of a working body. Except high profitability, steam-gas installation meets the rigid ecological requirements for level of emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon which almost it is twice less, than when using coal-dust technologies.
Ukraine has own development in the field of steam-gas installations of average and big power which can be used for a covering of peak loadings. Serial steam-gas installation of production of the 70 MWt GP NPKG "Zorya — Mashproyekt" (к.п.д. 48,5%) and российско - the 162 MWt Ukrainian PGU-162 (к.п.д. 50%) don't concede on profitability to foreign analogs. More powerful российско - the Ukrainian PGU-325 (325 MWt) with к.п.д. 52%, operated in Russia, slightly lose to foreign gas turbines of the Siemens AG and General Electric companies, к.п.д. which for such range of power are made by 55-57%. As for gas-turbine installations on the basis of the STIG and "Aquarius" technologies, the single power of serial Ukrainian installations doesn't exceed 40 MWt, and for this reason their use while is difficult to a covering of peak loadings.
The PGU-162 and PGU-325 installations were created in cooperation with the Russian gas-turbine companies. In the future transition to a mass production in Ukraine of steam-gas installations of average and big power is represented quite real: to 80% of the equipment of such PGU (the gas and steam turbine, the electric generator, the boiler - the utilizer, etc.) it can be made in Ukraine.
Despite high profitability, the steam-gas technology yet didn't gain broad development in Ukraine, and its use is limited to the low powers which aren't solving problems of smoothing of the schedule of daily loading. On joint stock company "Sumy NGO
of M. Frunz" PGU with a power about 20 MWt developing the electric power for own needs of the enterprise was a few years ago put into operation. Behind the gas turbine power
16 MWt the steam turbine by design capacity
was installed6 MWt. However the problems connected with operation of the boiler, didn't allow to reach design capacity of the steam turbine therefore PGU wasn't started in a mass production. In 2007 at combined heat and power plant of.Saki (ARE the Crimea) constructed PGU-20 by power 20МВт, in
2008- the m is developed and there is in an initial stage a project of the 74 MWt power unit PGU-70 in Calusci Ivano - Frankovsky area. A little earlier were developed, but the PGES-240 projects (240 MWt) in
aren't realized yetIzmail Odessa region and PGU-360 (360 MWt) in Odessa.
PGU use in a metallurgical complex where own need for the electric power makes to 2000 MWt is very perspective for Ukraine, and the part of this power is used in the afternoon. According to GP NPKG "Zorya — Mashproyekt", utilization of warmth of blast-furnace gas when using the 150 MWt PGU-150 steam-gas installations will allow not only to raise к.п.д. utilization from 10-12% (the steam-turbine block) to 40-45% but also to make on the scale of Ukraine to 2,0 Gvt.Chasov of the electric power which can be directed on own needs of metallurgy. It will help to lower load of thermal power significantly.
The Alchevsky metallurgical complex began recently building of three steam-gas installations on the 150 MWt blast-furnace gas everyone Mitsubishi firms (construction cost - about 480 mln. dollars). However the calculations executed in GP NPKG "Zorya — Mashproyekt", show that from the economic point of view the project of creation of the Ukrainian PGU-150 on the basis of (GTU) UGT-110000 gas-turbine installation which can be realized during two - three years is more attractive.
One more important direction of use of PGU-150 is the oil refinery of Ukraine. At development of technology of deep oil refining recycling of oil refineries of Ukraine will allow to make nearly 1,5 Gvt.Chasov of the electric power which can be directed on smoothing of the schedule of day electricity consumption.
In Russia where wear of power plants makes about 60%, steam-gas technology began to introduce recently that is connected with big capital expenditures for technology development (about 30 bln. dollars). According to projects of reconstruction and new construction of power facilities in Russia in 2008-2012 input of 20 power units PGU-400 on natural gas on the basis of the 270 MWt gas-turbine installation is planned.
The electric power plant first in modern Russia using a steam-gas cycle, was put into operation in 2002 in JSC Severo-Zapadnaya CHPP-3 (Sankt - Petersburg).As a part of the power block two gas-turbine installations of the Siemens AG company (V94.2), two coppers - the utilizer and the steam turbine of the Russian production are used. The following PGU-450 with two gas-turbine installations of the 160 MWt Russian production constructed on the license agreement with the Siemens AG company (analog of the V94.2 installation), is put into operation at the end of 2005 in JSC Kaliningrad Combined Heat and Power Plant-2 (block No. 1). It is necessary to mention also called above российско - the Ukrainian PGU-325 power
325 MWt, established on the Ivanovo state district power station, the 220 MWt steam-gas installation at the Tyumen combined heat and power plant-1 and two 39 MWt power units everyone on the Sochi thermal power plant.
At the end of 2006 commissioning was complete and complex test of the second PGU-450 block for JSC Severo-Zapadnaya CHPP-3 with the Russian analogs of gas turbines of the Siemens AG company is carried out, and in 2007 - the m is put into operation the power unit No. 3 at combined heat and power plant-27 JSC Mosenergo. Projects of the 450 MWt steam-gas installations at combined heat and power plant-21 and combined heat and power plant-27 JSC Mosenergo, by the Yuzhnaya CHPP-22 (Sankt - Petersburg) where the equipment of only the Russian production will be used are realized.
The Siemens AG company and JSC Power Machines in June, 2008 signed the license agreement on production, sale and service of the 286,6 MWt more perfect gas-turbine SGT5-2000E (V94.3A) installation with к.п.д. 39,5%. It is supposed that steam-gas installations on its basis will be delivered to CIS and Baltic countries, to India and Pakistan. Thus, in the near future Russia plans a wide entry into the world market of steam-gas technologies.
The presented analysis shows that power gas turbines of average and big power can serve as alternative of a covering of deficiency of the electric power in Ukraine in the afternoon and smoothings of the daily production schedule. Decrease in load of outdated Ukrainian power system in the afternoon and its operation in the conditions close to constant loading within a day, will allow to prolong a resource of many thermal power plants of the country.
For the solution of this problem today in Ukraine there are all conditions. Gas turbines of a simple cycle competitive in the world market and steam-gas installations of low and average power, and in cooperation with Russia - PGU of big and superbig power are developed and made.In particular, for a covering of day deficiency of power of 1100 MWt in Ukraine it is necessary to establish seven PGU-150 with a total cost about 1 bln. dollars
At the relevant organization the Ukrainian power mechanical engineering industry can make to 80% of elements of steam-gas installations of big and superbig power. Creation of the installations working at low-calorie gases - blast-furnace gas and waste of deep oil refining has good prospects. The importance for development of gas-turbine construction is got by development of industrial gasifiers of coal from the Ukrainian fields that will allow to reduce consumption of natural gas.
Gas-turbine construction is the knowledge-intensive industry. Despite a satisfactory condition of power gas-turbine construction in Ukraine, for its further maintenance at an appropriate level and creations of new generation of gas turbines and steam-gas installations on their basis it is necessary National scientifically - the technical program in the field of power gas-turbine construction. This program is developed now by National academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the leading design organizations of Ukraine in the field of gas-turbine construction.
In preparation of article took part: deputy chief engineer VNIPITRANSGAZ (Kiev) of D. Kostenko, chief designer of GP "Zorya — Mashproyekt" A.Botsula, staff of JSC The Sumy NGO of M.V. Frunz Cand.Tech.Sci. A. Smirnov and Cand.Tech.Sci. V. Parafeynik, employees of NAN of Ukraine Dr.Sci.Tech. A.Pismenny and Dr.Sci.Tech. B. Bileka.
P.S. Authors of article very persistently convince of expediency of replacement by the electric drive of the gas-turbine drive at existing compressor stations of the gas transmission system of Ukraine. Therefore edition of "A mirror of week" addressed for the comment and in Ministry of Fuel and Energy. Further we provide the received reply of Ministry of Fuel and Energy.
Proceeding from results of comparison of specific indicators on separate options of re-equipment of compressor stations, it is possible to define influence of size on them the general capital investments in compressor stations (in particular, in a construction of objects of external electroproviding), and also rates of rise in prices for energy carriers.
Analyzing results of comparison, it is possible to distribute conditionally the considered compressor stations (CS) on the following groups:
- the first group of compressor stations - with the highest value of specific indicators at their re-equipment on the electric drive, generally at the expense of considerable costs of external electroproviding. Compressor stations treat this group Pervomaisk and Gusyatin on the gas pipeline "Union" and compressor station Zadneprovskaya on the gas pipeline Yelets - Kremenchug - Krivoi Rog;
- the second KS group - with average value of specific indicators; these are six compressor stations (about a half considered), in particular compressor stations Kremenchug and Talnoye on the gas pipeline "Union", the compressor Kirovograd and Is southern stations - Buzhskaya on the gas pipeline Yelets - Kremenchug - Krivoi Rog, and also the compressor Valley and Romna stations;
- the third KS group - with the best indicators from the point of view of competitiveness in comparison with gas-turbine option of reconstruction; these are compressor stations on the gas pipeline Kiev - the West of Ukraine (Berdichev, Krasilov, Ternopol and Rogatin).
As today there are no domestic producers of electric motors of the necessary power with regulation of turns, the comparative analysis of technical characteristics of the equipment of SIEMENS, ABB and TRANSRESCH firms, and also their price indicators is considered and carried out. On preliminary conclusions at an investigation phase of quality of the producer of electric equipment for the main option the SIEMENS firm is chosen.
Technical solutions by options of re-equipment of compressor stations are considered within technological, electrotechnical and architecturally - construction parts, offers on production automation on the basis of new element base are also considered. Technical solutions are developed only concerning objects of the main production. Reconstruction of auxiliary systems and the equipment wasn't considered.
It should be noted that in the first two groups at all set price levels on energy carriers (with the corresponding ratio between the prices of natural gas and the electric power) specific indicators by option of re-equipment of compressor stations are one electric drive worse than option of introduction of the gas-turbine drive with use of the equipment of domestic producers. As for the third group of compressor stations (Krasilov, Ternopol and Rogatin), with a rise in prices for energy carriers specific expenses are leveled, and rather compressor station Berdichev - at all price levels the electric drive is more attractive.
Thus, in case of further study of questions of use of the electric drive it is necessary to pay attention first of all to compressor stations of the third and second group.
At the same time it is necessary to consider the following. As appears from expert estimates that introduction of the electric drive at compressor stations of the second group competed with the gas-turbine drive, price of electricity should be reduced against the acceptable price at the third level by 5-7%.
At opportunity thus to solve a price problem the following step offers to define two pilot objects: compressor station Berdichev on the gas pipeline Kiev - the West of Ukraine and on a choice compressor station Kremenchug or Talnoye on the gas pipeline "Union" for more detailed studying of influence of various factors at use of the electric drive, including the main question - interactions with power supply systems and their expenses, and also possibilities of influence on regulatory price policy in the power sphere.
For the reference
Volumes of release of fuel gas as a result of electric drive introduction:
- on the third group of compressor stations on the gas pipeline Kiev - the West of Ukraine (Berdichev, Krasilov, Ternopol and Rogatin) - approximately 250 million cubic meter a year;
- on the second group - compressor stations Kremenchug and Talnoye on the gas pipeline "Union", the compressor Kirovograd and Is southern stations - Buzhskaya on the gas pipeline Yelets - Kremenchug - Krivoi Rog, and also the compressor Valley and Romna stations - from 600 to 700 million cubic meter a year.
The total amount of release of fuel gas on listed compressor to stations will make about 900 million cubic meter a year. Thus expenses of the electric power will make 2951 million kW a year.
We will notice that return on investment depends on the established standard of profitability which, in turn, is regulated by a tariff for gas transportation. At standard of profitability at the level of 15% the settlement payback period will make approximately 10 years.