Doors of the majority of the recreation facilities placed in the Zakarpatye Solotvino, known for the salt lakes, for tourists were closed. Institutions didn't get permissions from the Ministry of Emergency Situations, and without it to accept tourists simply illegally.
"It is dangerous! " - officials claim, bringing into confirmation statistics. In the territory of the resort karstic failures were formed. Their quantity only for the past year increased by 10 times, and quantity of the drains polluting lakes, ecologists were tired to consider simply. "Uncontrolled building of lands near salt lakes became the reason of cataclysm", - Yaroslav Babyak, the employee explained a press - services Ministries of Emergency Situations of the Zakarpatye area. Local authorities didn't stint land allocations, despite all preventions of employees of the Ministry of Emergency Situations. Well, and as the centralized water disposal in Solotvino doesn't exist, new owners of coastal lands and the structures built on the bank of lakes simply merged water used in economy in cesspools. From - for what failures and a brine began to be formed (the water of salt lakes representing saturated hydrochloric solution) lost the properties.
Solotvino's fate in the future can comprehend and other Ukrainian resorts which have settled down on the bank of salt lakes. As the problem of uncontrollable building of their coast - with laying of underground communications and violations of water balance of unique objects of the nature - is typical for all regions where there are such lakes.
"In 2007 local authorities rented to absolutely unknown firms of 30 hectares of the earth of coastal part of the Saksky lake, now it became known that there are going to build the cottage town, - Oleg Gulov, the scientist - the hydrologist, the deputy director Sakskoy hydrological rezhimno - operational station complains. - But it means that the narrow strip of the sea rerash separating the lake from the Black Sea that will inevitably affect intake of salts to the western basin of the lake will be built up, and consequences will be irreversible". According to the ecologists, now the allocated sites are fenced with a fence, territory electrification, dumping and soil replanning are carried out.In October two observation wells entering into system of monitoring of the medical lake were destroyed, and the power electrocable feeding two pump stations is damaged.
The lake Chorubash on the Kerch Peninsula was comprehended by even more sad fate: it is filled with waste the Cane - Burunsky iron ore combine. Chokrak was lucky the lake which was nearby more: its subsoil didn't manage to plunder, and inclusion of its part to the territory of national natural park "Karalarsky Steppe" had to provide preservation behind the lake of the nature protection status. But in that is continually that inclusion in park of one part of the lake gives green light on a building way another - allegedly not to reserved and not being value. Last year one of businessmen leased part of the coastal territory of Chokrak. And when ecologists began to understand, it appeared that all territory of Chokrak not entering Scientific Production Enterprise is already divided. "Local authorities in every possible way deny that transferred under building a coastal zone of the lake, - Ivan Parnikoza, the Crimean ecologist tells. - But locals tell that here allegedly businessmen from the USA and the United Arab Emirates often arrive, the benefit, nearby remained vzletno - a landing strip, with all infrastructure which has remained from military base. It will be favorable to them to build there the resort town. But if not to give the reserved status to all lake Chokrak, in some years from its uniqueness there will be no trace also".
However and the reserved status not always interferes with violations.
"Salt lakes are in Donetsk region in the territory of wildlife areas, - Vladimir Boreyko, the head of the Kiev ecologist - the cultural center explains. - And though under the law the earth with such status is forbidden to be rented, it and are going to make - some private firms want to rent the territory near lakes for 49 years".
The most ridiculous in this situation that barriers on a way of building of salt lakes in Ukraine - very much. Activity in the coastal territory of lakes regulate both the Water code, and the Code about a subsoil of Ukraine, and in a case with the salt lakes which are possessing curative properties and being water pools of nation-wide value, - also the Law "About Resorts". This law unambiguously forbids carrying out on coast of lakes of any activity which can promote development of dangerous geological processes, and also affect natural medical factors of the resort and its ecological balance.
Both Solotvinsky lakes, and the Saksky lake are included in the list of the water medical objects approved by the resolution of the Cabinet still in 1997.
"Here only local authorities and the nobility don't wish anything about other laws, except the Law "About Local Government", - Oleg Gulov is indignant. - And, being guided by this law, allocate the earth in coastal territories as want and to whom want".
"I hear the first time about building of the coast of the Saksky lake, - Ekaterina Telik, the head of Saksky city department of resorts, health care and tourism assured. - No land allocations in this territory were carried out". The question "VD" was surprising and in Donetsk YEAH. "Lakes Slepny and Mushroom are included to the territory ланд - shaftny park "Slavic Resort", - Sergey Tretyakov, the chief of GU of protection of surrounding environment Donetsk YEAH confirmed. - Any construction there it isn't conducted, and about the facts of allocation of the earth near lakes I don't know". In passing g - N Tretyakov assured the correspondent of "VD" what to worry about destiny of Donetsk salt lakes there is no need because thanks to generosity of the regional budget the landscape park in means has no deficiency.
It is difficult to disagree that money for nature protection activity is allocated. Here only monitoring of a condition of salt lakes doesn't belong to this sphere: neither in state, nor in regional budgets of such line isn't present. Moreover, Ministry for Protection of the Environment and Natural Resources at all isn't engaged in similar activity - according to the Law
"About resorts", Ministry of Health has to carry out monitoring of medical lakes. But also to it for it money it isn't allocated, after all at Ministry of Health it is full of much more pressing problems defining overall performance of this department.
"In 2005 the Ministry of tourism and the resorts of the Crimea allocated to us 30 thousand UAH that we conducted research of a condition of medical lakes, - Oleg Gulov speaks. - But this money was insufficiently, and we forcedly added own means. Since then any target financing on lakes it isn't provided". According to the scientist, only on monitoring of six lakes about 100 thousand UAH annually are required. And detailed research of each lake will demand on the average 700 thousand UAH. To attend to search of means to government officials, on - visible, yet didn't come to mind - the inquiry in Ministry for Protection of the Environment and Natural Resources about existence of any programs for preservation of salt lakes nonplused officials.
However, in it there is nothing surprising. Environmental problems worry officials a little, and local authorities are perfectly informed on it. And therefore actively distribute delicious sites to all capable to pay for it money. While information on violations will reach Kiev while inspection and while the last will make the report will be sent, - you look, and new elections will burst and will allow to write off all misses for actions of the previous structure of local councils.
Continuous monitoring in reserves could rescue a situation, but on it the state has no money. Avaricious, as we know, pays twice: elimination of ecological disasters - much more expensive pleasure.
Far it isn't necessary to go behind an example: the authorities of Zakarpatye are very concerned now by the situation which has developed in Solotvino: clinics because of karstic educations are closed, salt mines is planned to preserve, the people living in this area, - to settle out. For all works now it is required to the authorities the much bigger sums, than what needed to be spent for lake protection: more than $1 million, after all costs now a question of resort closing. But experience of Zakarpatye yet didn't serve as an example for situation change as a whole.
Whether it is worth saying that abroad the relation to salt lakes is perfect other. These objects are carefully protected by the state. And thus are a source of the multimillion income, filling up local treasury. Near lakes cottage towns, and elite clinics are built not. And the minerals extracted in lakes actively are used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical branches.
Salt lakes could bring in the income and Ukraine. After all the investors, wishing to develop lechebno - the resort direction Oleg Gulov is, enough, convinced. The price of medical dirt in the world market at present makes $5-6 for kilogram. And, according to Nikolay Snegur, the chief engineer of Krymgipro — Vodkhoz institute, the cost of the Ukrainian dirt will be higher as on the hydromineral resources some Crimean lakes are more valuable than the well-known Dead Sea. But for local authorities where once is simpler to sell the coastal land, than to be engaged in search of investors for investment of capital who will bring in the stable income in a type of tax, but some years later.
Thus, what to make it it would be simple: it is worth carrying out only monitoring of salt lakes and to define possibilities of their economic application.By results of this work it is worth giving parts of lakes the reserved status, and part - to give for carrying out economic activity. That will allow the interested investors to get the corresponding permissions in Ministry for Protection of the Environment and Natural Resources.
Otherwise absence of control will lead to elimination of salt lakes: after all it will be impossible to restore the lost opportunity - accumulation of these natural resources went throughout many centuries. However, in Ukraine officials with bigger hunting allocate million funds for elimination of ecological disasters, than hundreds thousands - for their prevention.
The lost heritage
At the beginning of the XX century on the Crimean peninsula 48 salt lakes were. Today their total area decreased more than half - with 390 to 170 square kilometers, nearly a half of salt lakes of the peninsula or stopped the existence, or turned into reservoirs absolutely other type, and even at all on the verge of disappearance. So, two adjoining lakes of Evpatoriysky group are turned into fresh-water reservoirs. Bogayla's lake became that still in начале1970-x as a result of agricultural activity of state farm of Frunze and its poultry farm. In 20 years its destiny was repeated by the salty lake Cornel - Yar. Ecologists consider that as the reason of desalting the constant filtration of dneprovsky water from the Intermountain reservoir through the soil served. To lakes of Perekopsky group dump drains chemical plants of Krasnoperekopsk. Two lakes in Western to the Crimea - Donuzlav and Panskoye - were used as ports, and now water in them doesn't differ from the sea. Under the threat of disappearance there are lakes Sasyk - Sivash, Aktash, Moynaki and Uzunlar.
At a turn of XIX and XX centuries on the salt lakes of the Crimea extracted about 60% of salt which was consumed by the Russian Empire, it also exported to Europe. The salt extracted in the Crimean lakes, had a light fialkovy smell, the high contents a beta - carotene and moved even to an imperial table. Before the beginning of the XX century of boiling out salt it was made much less, than stone, however it, thanks to the higher quality, successfully I competed with the last in domestic market though its prime cost was higher (10 and 7 kopeks for pood respectively). In 1887 in Slavyansk worked 23 solevarennykh of the plant, poods of salt making to 4 million a year.In the USSR the decision to refuse salt-mines in the Crimea and completely to pass to cheaper product - stone salt was made.