In 1972 in the Krasnogradsky region of the Kharkov area, near Krestishche's village there was the first in Ukraine and probably in all European part of the continent nuclear explosion. Since the morning the nature as if waited for this moment: to the horizon - clouds, bezvetrenno, the sun went to a zenith, cleaning shadows. It was Sunday, July 10, 1972. Exactly at 10.00 the earth shuddered and began to roar.
Scientists counted that the volume of deposits of the energy carrier in this area reaches three hundred billions cubic meter. The powerful gas-condensate field was open in 1970, and today in the Kharkov area get more than a half of all Ukrainian gas. In 1971 in the Krasnogradsky area 17 wells worked already.
Once in July, 1971 when drilling a new well near Krestishche's village there was a state of emergency. Gas escaped outside earlier, than the drill reached the planned depth. Nobody expected it. The pressure of gas condensate reached force in 400 atmospheres, and from exhaust blow threw in air of two engineers who were at this moment on the top platform of a gas tower (having fallen from height more than 30 meters, both were lost).
What to do with uncontrollable gas, engineers solved days. The next village was in half a kilometer from a field. They traveled over all houses, told: not to heat, in huts not to spend the night, not to smoke, not to turn on the light. Were afraid of the strongest explosion. Engineers didn't manage to cope with an uncontrollable gas stream, and they decided to light it. To evening of the next day the gas fountain turned into a torch height in some tens meters. It burned day and night, and at night from - for a torch was light-almost as in the afternoon. For a year several times tried to cope with a situation. The tried method - to dump multiton concrete plates on a well - didn't yield result: they scattered, as chips.
Atom against elements
Similar big fires usually tame to the protozoa long ago checked in the way: well unearthing. This time there arrived experts from Moscow and proposed the original solution:to conduct underground nuclear explosion. It was approved by the country leaders, the secretary general of the Central Committee of CPSU Leonid Brezhnev and the chairman of the board Ministrov of the USSR Alexey Kosygin signed. Charged to carry out a task to special forces of the Ministry of average mechanical engineering of the country, armies of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and KGB. Any of the military units deployed in Ukraine, to it didn't attract. Local experts didn't devote in the project, but thus demanded the receipt on nondisclosure.
Preparation lasted some months. It was necessary to drill sideways from an operational well another, inclined, on depth more than two kilometers. And to build in the nuclear explosive device representing the long cylinder. All the general from the all-Union department conducting underground nuclear explosions ordered.
In only 400-500 meters from a well the village to Pershotravneva where at that time there lived about 400 people began. Locals knew that vanity round a well means preparation for its closing, but that a nuclear charge... Ring with a radius of 400 meters from epicenter of future explosion fenced as a special zone. It filled up with a 20-centimetric layer of river sand. Command point and control center were protected by KGB armies, other objects - internal troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs from Moscow. All wells of a field were muffled, to employees gave out the special suits protecting from radiation.
Power supply networks and systems of water supply were switched-off. The next large village, Hrestishche where for an hour before explosion took out Pershotravnevy's all inhabitants, was from an event place in only two kilometers. The route Moscow - Simferopol - in eight kilometers.
Everything was ready to the middle of summer of 1972. 10 o'clock in the morning on July 10, 1972. At command point rustles with blades ready immediately to rise in air the helicopter. All being nearby ordered to rise on socks (a protective measure that from a push of soil the backbone didn't break).
Then time counting went, and exactly at 10.00 the earth shuddered, and then began to roar and hooted. Everything around mixed up. Explosion. From a crater of a gas volcano on height more than a kilometer shot up huge untidily - a brown radioactive mushroom and slowly Sanzhar (Poltava region) floated aside. Its shadow fell to the ground, having closed the sun. Eyewitnesses remember: it seemed to all as if there came a doomsday. That stood vertically earlier - fell. From movement of the earth of people several times threw in air.
Then - dead silence.People with relief sighed, sure that attempt to hammer with the melted-off breed a gas well was successful. But in 20 seconds everything suddenly hooted and cracked: the crater of a gas volcano unexpectedly recovered on full force. From it the powerful kilometer gas stream mixed with breed escaped up.
Experimental animals lay as lifeless. Hens were filled up on one side, and roosters rolled head over heels. Bees повылетали from beehives also got not far. In huts a blast wave повыбивало flew down, flues and furnaces were filled up, walls cracked. Around in the heat the summer, shines the nature, and villages reminded deserted ruins. Over a year restoration the selyanskikh of dwellings proceeded. Their owners didn't learn then the truth that happened.
The price of closing of a well appeared not only is high, but also is senseless. The purpose didn't manage to be reached - gas continued to beat outside. The elements were stronger, than nuclear explosion, and everything it was necessary to start anew.
Didn't remain anything other how to return to the old tested method - a well unearthing. Within several months dug a ring pit 400 wide and 20 meters in depth.
From a flame storming by months there was an improbable heat. Equipment and the people who were engaged in excavation, constantly watered. It was necessary to work in special suits and helmets: on a silver platter were... pieces of the ice formed as a result of diffusion.
In the hardest conditions it was succeeded to block a crater through which crashed out and senselessly burned down more than billion cubic meter of gas. Taming of elements proceeded almost whole year - till July, 1973. This well didn't give any cubic meter of gas.
Forgotten by all
People felt explosion and for some kilometers. Just that year I came on summer vacations to the grandmother who lived in ten kilometers from explosion epicenter. I remember how on the rural yards some days before July 10 representatives of local government went and spoke about evacuation. The grandmother who has endured military hard times, began to collect everything as it seemed to her, the most necessary in such cases: soap, matches, salt, sugar, clothes to begin with, documents. Nobody understood that occurs. Old men refused to leave familiar spots. To die - so in a native hut, my great-grandmother spoke. And at all I refused to leave the village. And such as it, was much. The others on foot left in the early Sunday morning native places.On the village the long chain loaded things of the people lasted, some took with themselves even goats, cows. Prepared for the worst. In several kilometers from the village the camp was set up. And here at 10.00 the earth began to leave from - under feet. It several times shook, as jelly. And all saw a huge column over the heads. Then to anybody also didn't occur that it was nuclear explosion. Came back home late at night on command "from above".
The flame lit up the sky over the village all next year. At night on streets didn't include lamps - it was visible as in twilight.
Inhabitants of neighboring villages testify: about radiation hazard to them didn't report, didn't warn and that it is impossible to eat vegetables and fruit, to drink milk. And after all in power nuclear explosion was surpassed with that was in Hiroshima!
Learned later: it seems, someone from peasants listened to "the Voice of America".
People not once asked that them recognized as victims of radiation, addressed in different instances, including to the government. But didn't receive any answer.
At the beginning of independence of Ukraine Pershotravnevy's inhabitants tried to receive the special status, as at Chernobyl veterans. But to prove that suffered from radiation, couldn't.
When in 1987 Poltavshchina remote from Chernobyl in hundred kilometers, chose as a zone of cultivation of agricultural products for baby food, all surprisingly in this "pure", apparently, the region the net production grew far not. Whether not therefore, what in 14 years prior to Chernobyl accident near the slobozhansky village Hrestishchi made terrible nuclear experiment? After explosion almost all inhabitants of the village died of oncological diseases - but unless it can excite someone there, "above"?.
Peace nuclear explosions of the USSR
In the USSR, since 1965, the extensive program of use of nuclear explosions in interests of a national economy was implemented. From 124 peace explosions (all of them belong to underground) 117 technological carried out outside the boundaries of nuclear ranges (Semipalatinsk and on New Earth).
In interests of implementation of this program carried out only 22% of nuclear tests (it is a question of industrial explosions and working off of nuclear charges for them). That is on 1/5 programs of nuclear tests of the USSR it was directed especially on the civil purposes.
Declassified at the beginning of 90-x years the "nuclear" statistics claims that nuclear explosions were conducted and in the territory of Ukraine.So, 28-й on the account explosion in the peace purposes (363-е nuclear test in the USSR) thundered on July 10, 1972 in the Kharkov area. The name - "Torch". Power - 3,8 kilotons.
The second and last peace nuclear explosion in the territory of the Ukrainian Republic was in 1979 on Young Communard mine in Donbass.