Ukraine celebrates the twelfth anniversary of the Constitution.
The basic law of Ukraine was adopted on June 28, 1996 after so-called "the constitutional night" when the Verkhovna Rada was under the threat of dissolution. After 23-hour meeting of parliament by 315 voices pro (the constitutional majority was necessary, or 300 voices) at 36 against and 12 refrained the Basic law of the state was adopted. 30 deputies didn't vote. The constitutional structure of Rada - 450 parliamentarians.
Under the threat of a referendum
The day before, on June 27, 1996, the decree of the president about holding a referendum on a question of adoption of the Constitution was published. The draft of the Basic law approved by the Constitutional commission on March 11, 1996 and assumed as a basis for further work as parliament had to be submitted for a referendum.
After adoption of the Constitution the parliament adopted the resolution in which appealed to the president to withdraw the decree. Leonid Kuchma who was then the head of state noted that with adoption of the Constitution by parliament the question of the decree "automatically" is removed.
Subsequently the president repeatedly noted imperfection of the document accepted for one night. On April 16, 2000 I passed an All-Ukrainian referendum for which 4 questions among which - about the right of the president in certain cases to dismiss parliament were submitted. The parliament couldn't accept any of bills of amendments to the Constitution following the results of a referendum.
Political reform from Kuchma
On August 24, 2002 Leonid Kuchma in the address to the Ukrainian people on the occasion of 11-й anniversaries of Independence of Ukraine, declared need of transition from президентско - parliamentary political system to парламентско - the presidential republic in the country.
He supported creation of the coalition government relying on the stable parliamentary majority which forms the government and bears responsibility for its work.In March of the same year in a televised address to the people Leonid Kuchma declared that transfers the offers on the constitutional reform which, in particular, assume transfer of part of presidential powers to the government and a two-chamber parliament, reduction of a depuy corps, and also introduction of direct action of decisions of a national referendum to parliament. The president submitted this project for national discussion which was carried out within two months and came to the end on May 15.
The special commission created in parliament developed the bill of modification of the Basic law, significantly expanding powers of the Verkhovna Rada and the government. Later in parliament active discussion concerning political reform was conducted.
On December 8, 2004 the Verkhovna Rada adopted the law on modification of the Constitution and changes to the law on presidential elections. In the same day the president Leonid Kuchma signed these documents.
The law on changes in the Constitution (about political reform) approves the principle of transition from президентско - parliamentary to парламентско - a presidential government, government formation by the coalition of deputy fractions, extension of a term of office of parliament till 5 years.
Political reform in Ukraine came into force on January 1, 2006. In 2006 the parliament of Ukraine was elected only according to party lists. The term of office of the Verkhovna Rada was increased from 4 to 5 years.
Dissolution of parliament
Nevertheless, in 2007 in Ukraine passed snap elections of People's Deputies. The president issued some decrees about the early termination of powers of parliament. The main reason - an exit of a number of deputies from the majority though the Constitution accurately defines 3 bases for parliament dissolution by the president (article 90).
So, the president has the right ahead of schedule to stop power of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine if within one month in parliament the coalition of deputy fractions isn't created if within 60 days after resignation of the government the staff of the Cabinet of Ukraine isn't created if within 30 days of one regular session plenary sessions can't begin. Any of these bases at that time wasn't.
As a result re-elections were appointed to the end of September. As well as in 2006 the majority of votes was received by Party of Regions led by the main competitor of the incumbent president Victor Yushchenko Victor Yanukovych.At the same time, in 2006 Victor Yanukovych for the second time headed the Cabinet.
After snap elections for the second time Yulia Timoshenko became the prime minister.
Now in the Verkhovna Rada again there is no formal majority. Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc and the "Our Ukraine — National Self-defense" block in total received on elections of 2007 of 228 mandates. The agreement on creation of the coalition was signed by 227 deputies from these political forces. This year 2 more deputies of the coalition left it. Thereby, in Ukraine political crisis as the parliament in anticipation of summer vacations didn't make any productive decision proceeds.
The configuration of cooperation of political forces in the Verkhovna Rada a long time remains a subject of comments. The option of preservation of the coalition of BYuT and NU - NANOSECOND remains undecided as a number of deputies from both blocks don't agree with management policy. The subject of creation of the wide coalition - association is actively discussed with Party of Regions.
Both the coalition, and opposition offer the changes in the text of the existing Constitution. Options of the constitutional reform a little - from acceptance of changes in parliament, to a national referendum.
Rights and freedoms
According to the existing Constitution, Ukraine is the sovereign, independent, democratic, social, constitutional and unitary state. In Ukraine there is a uniform nationality. The basic law proclaimed a state language in Ukraine Ukrainian. It is thus recorded that "the state provides a full development and Ukrainian functioning in all spheres of public life in all territory of Ukraine". "Free development" Russian and other national languages is at the same time guaranteed, "with which citizens of Ukraine use".