Spassky natural boundary and its fountains

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Gardening of the cities, the device of gardens and fountains always was considered in Europe as an indicator of stable economic development and safety of the state. Only prospering city communities were able to afford to contain public parks, sources and reservoirs.
The medieval cities grew from the strengthened locks which territory was arranged extremely pragmatically and was urged to protect inhabitants from attacks of enemies. Own garden with the fountain at the estate was might contain only by aristocrats or very rich inhabitants. The others were content with a trip for the weekend to suburbs which turned over time into spontaneous parks and public boulevards. Bois de Boulogne in Paris and park Madison in New - York became city thanks to a rigid ban on any construction in these green zones.

The European tradition of transformation of forest suburbs in city green zones didn't get accustomed in Nikolaev for the simple reason - in our city there were no woody suburbs. The nature and steppe climate couldn't present to citizens ready parks, gardens and boulevards. They needed to be created persistent work of several generations of people. The first administrators, according to the city historian G. N. Ge, literally "red-hot iron заохочивали inhabitants to cultivation of gardens and kitchen gardens".
At the beginning of the XIX century the chief commander of the Black Sea fleet and ports marquis Ivan Ivanovich de Traverse forbade to distribute under building the Admiralty lands in the Spassky natural boundary. The special decree the military governor of Nikolaev ordered to break park in this place and to set it "with the brought overseas trees and plants". In parallel from office of the town governor the order followed all citizens to arrange at the estates "gardens of a walnut, apple-tree and silk here".
Gardening of the city was very labor-consuming and difficult business. Sierozemic soil didn't detain moisture on a surface, and passed it in underground emptiness. The first trees didn't get accustomed in the city, they dried up without intensive watering and due leaving. Some tens years that the necessary structure of the soil for a vegetable cover was created were required.Therefore to inhabitants it was forbidden to cut adult trees for economic needs and to build houses on a place of the laid-out gardens.
Large-scale gardening of the city and the first public boulevards in Nikolaev appeared at the governor A.S. Greyge. Continuing business to de Traversa, it carefully looked after for wild and fruit gardens at the admiral's house, constructed a new beautiful greenhouse instead of old decayed, closely was engaged in acclimatization of trees and bushes. According to its order Hugo - the western slope of the Spassky barrow from observatory to the road in the Scaffold was planted trees and shrubs. Here on a place of continuous sand which covered with a cloud of a dust the city, there was the park existing and until now (Pioneer park).
Gardens were divorced at new Mate school and at the Black Sea cadet company. The state orchard at the third Spassky source was supported in a good shape.
At Greyge the biography of modern Bugsky Boulevard began. In 1826 the city dump on a slope of Military harbor was on his order destroyed and the boulevard which became decoration of the city and a place of summer holiday of inhabitants is broken.
Attempts of administrators violently to plant trees and shrubs in the city encountered first fierce resistance of the city hall. Alexey Samuilovich Greyg suggested vowels of the Nikolaev Duma to redeem already broken boulevard from fleet that on this money to pave it and to arrange well for public celebrations. Deputies flatly refused to spend budget money for "a prelstitelny loitering" and put forward to the governor the offer to raise a payment for park visit, and on the gained money to arrange well the road. Then the admiral arrived rigidly: it raised before the government a question of return of part of city lands to Sea department and, having got permission, attached to naval economy all shore along Ingul and the Bugsky estuary. The magistrate thought suddenly late. All its attempts to seize this territory ended with failure.
The first attempt to attempt upon a public park zone from the individual belongs to the contractor Ivan Bertnev. In 1844, using temporary absence in the city of the military governor M.P. Lazarev, he the truths - not truths managed to convince staff quartermasters to give out to it the permission for construction of two warehouse for the ship wood on a coastal slope. The contractor cut down 4 trees and laid the foundation for structures.
Reaction of the admiral who has come back from Sevastopol was lightning:the merchant is fined 160 rubles, the bases are immediately sorted, and the officials guilty of illegal branch of the earth, received various collectings.
In 1845 the governor makes the order to land the avenue of trees on Spassky descent and to lay out a garden on the western slope of military harbor. At Lazarev this district of the city started being made out as a recreation area of inhabitants.
In the middle of the XIX century the Spassky garden was shattered into a number of economic and administrative sites, the total area of a green zone was reduced. In its territory there was a natural boundary the Dry Fountain, the Volovy yard, Spassky shipyard and Spassky barracks are built. In 1889 the extensive territory was given for dachas No. No. 1-31 and river Yachts - club.
In the winter 1919-го locals completely cut down the Spassky natural boundary to heat cold houses. Same year drunk anarchists burned the Potemkinsky palace.
With fountains and water supply in the city too very long it wasn't got on. The Spassky natural boundary throughout all century before last was the only place, from where the population could receive clear drinking water. The powerful spring which was at top of the Spassky beam, in coastal sailing directions was called as the fountain or a water-cannon. From this source water arrived to the Potemkinsky palace, a bath, kitchen and other economic constructions of Spassk. Two more branches laid to Spassky pier and the Spassky pool. At the beginning of 60-x years of the XIX century the spring gave per day 11500 buckets of water.
Besides the main fountain, in this natural boundary was two more less: one settled down at beam top at the very beginning of descent to the Bugsky crossing, the second was on the coast of the Bugsky estuary - from it the first stage of the Spassky water supply system was carried out to the house of the Chief commander of the Black Sea fleet and ports. This source fed the well-known Palace fountain.
After cutting down of the Spassky natural boundary and tectonic changes in the soil, arisen after earthquakes in 1830, then in 1929 - m (5 points by the Richter scale) and in 1951 - m (4 points), - these three fountains ran low. By the beginning 30-x years of the XIX century ceased to beat a water-cannon at Varvarovsky descent, the source of the Palace fountain died in the late nineties an eyelid before last, and the main spring of the Spassky natural boundary dried during the German occupation.
Now on a place of these fountains houses, stadium and various economic constructions are constructed.Water went to emptiness which, according to geologists, are the main morphological characteristic of underground soil of the modern residential district "Dry Fountain".
Before the war water still went spontaneously from top of Bugsky descent. This circumstance induced the city authorities to construct cascade fountains of Bugsky Boulevard which were powered self-flowing water of a dying Spassky source. The construction very harmoniously fitted into a landscape of the residential district and became a favourite place of walks and rest of citizens in 70-80-е years. The remains of trees of the ancient natural boundary and cool water created a unique microclimate, having made the area prestigious. Here party functionaries and city chiefs liked to lodge.
However intensive economic construction changed tectonics of the soil of the residential district, and the cascade fountain dried. Water chose for itself the new course, and cellars of skyscrapers are impounded today. Larvae of mosquitoes in nine-storey buildings propagate all the year round and don't add to residents of cheerfulness.
The cascade fountain stopped being today the cascade. The electric pump drives water from the estuary upward, forcing it to fill under a pressure concrete capacities at different levels. At night the electric motor switch off and there comes habitual closeness.


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