Strange now time: it isn't known, where and when traps danger. A few days ago it became known of incident in area Doroshovk Voznesensky's village. It strikes with the ordinary and tragic element. The inhabitant of one of houses began repair in the yard. I dug out a trench, and the earth arches unexpectedly fell off, having filled up 37 - the summer man.
Similar construction works demand observance of certain norms and rules which builders - not only house handymen, but also professionals often neglect. Cases of death of people testify to it under blockages taking place in our area. And after all these tragedies could not be.
A few years ago at house construction in the Ship area which was conducted by the specialized construction organization, in a ditch covered with earth one of builders. When the man who half is in the earth, still expected the help, his colleagues tried to get him. However them, inept actions as then became clear, brought only to that the person plunged everything deeper. Eventually decided to call rescuers, however, unfortunately, was already late. Staff of the Ministry of Emergency Situations arrived to take a breathless corpse from a ditch. And, it was succeeded to make it not at once: in the beginning it was necessary to strengthen carefully ditch walls from which earth blocks continuously collapsed, and only then to go down on a bottom. Builders before works have to strengthen walls! However they neglected this requirement, whether on negligence, whether from - for haste, as led to trouble.
The similar case is recorded and this year. In February on the street 1-й Sandy in Nikolaev the builder was lost at well more than 20 meters in depth repair. Its walls collapsed, having covered the person with earth. Rescuers could get a body more than in a month. All this time emergency works were performed, on the arches of a well were imposed 10 protective ferroconcrete rings, and then experts established a metal pipe for a fastening. Only then became possible to get into deep ominous mine.
Non-compliance with safety measures when carrying out construction works is one of the reasons of the described tragedies.One more prerequisite of unexpected collapses of the earth in sites - features of soil.
"Mines" under the city
Since the basis of the city it is known that in our region there are richest stocks of limestone - a shell rock which lies powerful layers quite close to an earth surface. From this fine construction material the majority of buildings in our city is built. The known Nikolaev regional specialist, the historian and the builder Dmitry Ivanovich ZAKOVOROTNY devoted the book "Thought about a Stone and People" to detailed research of building of Nikolaev.
As Dmitry Ivanovich specifies, limestone extracted not only in the village of Kamenka of the Ochakov area (the name of the settlement speaks for itself), but also on coast of the rivers, and then and in the territory of the modern regional center. Archival documents that for construction of the Nikolaev observatory carried a construction material on supplies from the pit located in Ternovke remained. Dmitry Ivanovich remembers how, being the boy, saw deep caves around the Camp field.
The technology was simple. When for the merchant allocated the land plot, mining right there began. Contractors got a stone on a place and put it on use. So Nikolaev was under construction.
In the book Dmitry Zakovorotny writes: "Contractors extracted limestone on a site, so-called, the min. method. Near a site pulled out колодезь to a place of a bedding of a stone, and then went deep (врубывались) an adit horizontally, broke it and the manual winch in tubs gave upward. When the need for a stone disappeared, mine filled up with waste of building and the earth. Therefore not incidentally in the modern territory of Nikolaev still there is a sag of buildings and constructions, and sometimes there are also failures".
Chaotic production of a stone gained such scope that "on June 19, 1859 the general - the governor of edge addresses with the letter to the Nikolaev military governor: "In some districts of Novorossiysk edge questions concerning development of the soil from which the construction stone" is got are started. In this message the attention that any development of stone quarries by the persons who are engaged in this trade without the correct system and supervision from the local administration, involves "premature exhaustion of stone quarries and accidents from bruises" is paid.
It is worth remembering that in due time builders of Ukraine hotel had difficulties, close to it buildings of "Hundred part", other structures in the city. Works didn't manage to be finished quickly as under buildings one for another all new emptiness in soil were found, why on a construction course hastily it was necessary to liquidate noticeable sags.
Where it is thin - there and it is torn
It is possible to avoid soil collapses, observing rules of building, - the chief specialist of department inzhenerno - technical and evacuation providing, radiation and chemical protection of Head department Ministry of Emergency Situations in the Nikolaev area Alexander KAPLUN considers.
- First of all, it is necessary to take care of stability of the base of the building near which earth or construction works are performed. The base is a basis of any structure. Often happens that the base is calculated on the one-storeyed house, and on it do superstructures. About what stability can there be a speech? Example - a house on Karl Liebknecht St., 4. According to the project he reflected 5-floor, and built all nine floors. The tape base didn't sustain, why the house started giving sag and on a facade cracks went.
Besides it is necessary to watch balancing of walls that not done often by self-builders: even the insignificant deviation of a wall from the put 90 degrees leads over time to an inclination and a wall collapse.
Construction can't be conducted in close proximity to water or a water source - the distance it shouldn't be smaller 50 meters. Happens that the river changes the course and, having appeared near the house, washes away its basis that can lead to a collapse. For the same reason it is necessary to equip correctly drainage systems near houses which specialists of the profile enterprises will help to make, them in our city is a little. Will help to strengthen the soil also plants. By the way, one of the reasons of big destructions in the Western Ukraine after a recent flood experts called deforestation that promoted soil washing out.
It is necessary to remember possibility of sag and to inhabitants of shabby buildings, especially during long pouring rains when damp and unstable there are a soil and walls.
Failures in the earth often provoke also breakages of water supply and sewer systems. The city water system is extremely worn-out therefore leaks quickly wash away the earth.For example, at the end of March of this year on Oleynik Street employees of emergency crew of the Nikolayevvodokanal enterprise replaced 52 meters of sewer pipes in a place 2 - a meter failure in the middle of the carriageway.
photos are provided by the Center of promotion of GU Ministry of Emergency Situations in the Nikolaev area