The construction conflicts and shadow distribution of the city earth, trade booths at playgrounds and supermarkets on a place of green squares is already habitual reality with which all nikolayevets should be reconciled. The heat as - that imperceptibly pushed a problem of an architectural esthetics of new buildings and constructions on a background.
Professionalism of city designers, for the known reason, long time of very few people interested. It and is clear it is interesting to whom to discuss a socialist domostroitelstvo of dormitory areas. Eldar Ryazanov mocked at the Soviet architecture and standard projects enough.
Today all not so. Today architects - people creative, and at the request of customers change our city in compliance with the ideas of beauty and harmony.
Almost all architects working in Nikolaev from the date of the basis of the city, came under influence санкт - the Petersburg school of town planning. V.A. Vanrezant, O. Starov, K. Akroyd, F.I. Vunsh, I.I. Knyazev, F.P. Dewolang, etc. were anyway connected with the northern capital.
Planning of streets, arrangement of the first public buildings, private building of the city, repeated architectural shape of St. Petersburg even in trifles. 200 years later, the known writer Vasily Aksenov calls Nikolaev by "abortirovanny St. Petersburg".
The European traditions of architecture in Nikolaev were very hardy. Houses were under construction on lines and didn't partition off the carriageway, and also it is very beautiful выгдит architectural illumination of buildings. The city authorities mercilessly fined inhabitants who tried to expand the structures at the expense of the state territory. Mansions of prosperous citizens gradually as in St. Petersburg, extended and got shape firewall (standing closely to each other) constructions.
The principle of lines and prospects was very long firm in planning of city architecture. The thought refused to approve projects which broke the developed communications in Nikolaev. The city equal squares of planning lived up to the last quarter of H1H of an eyelid.
Brothers Donskoy the first risked to construct the plant of agricultural cars (з - д "Dormashin") on crossing of streets Sevastopol and Small Sea. The history keeps silence about what bribes and to whom businessmen gave to place the production on the carriageway of two lines. But today the result of this construction is known - Sevastopolskaya Street from through prospect turned into an inconvenient dashed line which in the most improper places is partitioned off by various structures. This street doesn't suffice today for unloading of an intense traffic on Lenin Ave. and Chigrin St.
In 70-x years of an eyelid before last Nikolaev endured the first attack of "an architectural illness". B. A. von Glasenap - the Chief commander of the Black Sea fleet and ports, made the city and port open for foreigners and commercial vessels. The military garrison became shopping center. The former petty bourgeoises and small shopkeepers for the short period of time made multimillion fortunes on grain trade and... became stupid from easy money. They looked around, wanted them to spend, and there was no place to spend. The infrastructure of entertainments of the closed military garrison didn't promote merchant spirit "in a big way".
The yesterday's peddlers who have turned in the gildeyskikh of merchants, began to equip the life in the city. There was a desire to build something like that... well, such... Generally, they couldn't explain to the architect of that want. There was no elementary: literacy, culture and step. There was no patriotism, love and empathy for the city. Thoughtless pomposity and conceit are cornerstone of architectural motivation of this era.
On Taurian, Moldavian, Big Sea and Nikolsky steel to appear absolutely silly buildings of profitable houses and private structures. Pseudo-Mauritian facade with baroque window apertures, an empire entrance with a coquettish sun blind of rococo, classicism with Ionic semi-columns - all this was present at an architectural esthetics of newly appeared nouveau riches. Capital travelers with astonishment raised eyebrows, surveying from windows of stagecoaches this "beauty", and knowingly nodded.
The architectural illness proceeded about 20 years. Then everything was adjusted. Children of uneducated contractors found sense of proportion and returned to conservative harmony. Dwellings became convenient, functional and practical.Of the past there were shod entablatures and pig-iron gate with state imperial crowns which discorded with private character of structures.
Nikolaev approached to the XX century with the unique city architecture which harmoniously absorbed in itself both a gothic style, and classicism, and elements of just appeared modernist style.
"Attack" of the second
After revolution and civil war the city long time happily avoided construction cataclysms at a stage of creative projects. The Nepmansky kitsch of Moscow didn't manage to come to "the deaf province by the sea". Business was crushed by Bolsheviks earlier, than found independent political force. The state began to control flight of the architectural imagination completely.
From the Bolshevism Nikolaev got a faceless Alluvium, Salt, dormitory areas of the Industrial zone on the Watering place. The few monuments of Stalin classicism (The house of the expert) and an empire style (a house on Dunayev St. and Sovetskaya St. crossing) got.
However idyll was short. The town-planning illness found backbone character. According to the plan of perspective building of the city accepted at the end of 60-x years of the last century, we have to live today in a green oasis of squares and parks.
The industrial enterprises and harmful productions were taken out to the country. All center had to turn into a foot zone. On Slobodkakh, Military and the Rocket grove tennis courts, sports grounds and covered swimming pools were planned to arrange. The amusement park according to the plan broke into territories of today's Yalt with artificial ponds and fountains, ZhDP turned into a big sports complex, etc., etc.
Life introduced amendments. Directors of the city enterprises from the former nomenclature by hook or by crook began to get permissions from the City Council for construction of residential buildings near the plants through passage (the people shouldn't be late for work). On a place of future squares and parks faceless working hostels began to appear, and tennis courts built up garage cooperatives. Omnipotent party bosses were incapable to fight against momentary interests of the powerful directors connected with voyenno - an industrial complex of the country.
"Attack" the third
Fifteen years of independence and the market environment changed shape of Nikolaev to unrecognizability. The city leaves from monoeconomic orientation to shipbuilding. The closed military garrison becomes the civilized center.
"Imperial villages" until recently it is shy тулившиеся on suburbs, began to master the historical center of ship edge. Architects unexpectedly for themselves were claimed by large and medium business.
Today's engineering firms and workshops are still very weak economically. They aren't able to defend a rationality of the esthetics and follow the tastes of customers. Everything returned into place. Sesquicentennial history repeats itself large-scale farce. Backward oligarchs ego-trip in architecture of residential buildings and offices.
The ugly form of supermarkets still as - that is justified by limit functionality of a construction, but houses of the old city - one big grief. Double-glazed windows in windows of the former noble mansions on Faleevskaya, extensions from lining in merchant profitable houses on Navarinskaya and other streets of the old center - became a habitual picture for the today's inhabitant.
In the city didn't remain free lands. To experiment architecture of buildings becomes very expensive pleasure, and with landscaping which demands known space it is almost impossible.
However there is no limit to human perfection. In 2006 one of owners of prestigious city club, literally, shook the unpampered shipbuilder by refinement of the architectural taste. The known businessman made the impossible - he changed Admiral Makarov Boulevard landscaping - the most conservative historical district of Nikolaev which for two hundred years was equipped in one architectural style. The owner of club constructed the ladder connecting the top and bottom BAM. Visitors of an institution don't need to trudge now on unsteady feet of the whole 50 meters to rise to the city a traditional way. Coquettish boudoir descents with small benches will accompany the client in a difficult ascension. Erotic petals of orchids won't allow the person to endure shock from change of the club atmosphere on severe reality. The Alpine hill with illumination from lamps will give confidence in tomorrow.
In this area at different times were: guardroom, residence of the military governor, magistrate building, officer meeting, warehouses, warehouses, various structures of infrastructure of the management of fleet.
Boulevard straight lines, strict granite parapet, the classical fountain and ship guns - made until recently uniform ensemble which harmoniously finished the territory of a today's administrative center of Nikolaev.
The bronze monument to the admiral is in fifty meters from huge leaves of orchids from the painted metal. In the right hand a telescope, a look it is directed directly on a ladder. Jokers - photographers sent for a long time on competitions of the photo of this architectural absurdity.
The eclecticism accompanies modern building of the city and, seemingly, all reconciled to it. The known businessman in the city and the deputy who received from the City Council "good" on building of the area of the Central market, doesn't complicate the architects harmony searches (saves?. ). The building of trade pavilion in late classical style of socialist architecture "is crushed" by ugly glass cubes which at the same time "buried" old bus station. Designers changed all street: brilliant squares of future offices squeezed between buildings of times Khruschev's "housing revolution". Shukhov's tower which all observed "on a gleam" between houses with North - east part of the area, is tightly closed by a mirror wall.
However the biggest grief occurs on Garden. Here the esthetics of absurdity set in for a long time. Toy, pseudo-Gothic buildings of a pizzeria "Vladam" and Piligrim hotel adjoin to rectangular boxes of future offices, and the orthodox temple casts a shadow on a mirror wall of new bank, and further... and further hands fall.
Attacks of an old illness on - new change the city. The province steps on a habitual rake. This illness is treated only by time. We to citizens need to hope that educated descendants of backward oligarchs become educated and will find sense of proportion. The hope weak, but it is present.