In August of this year the whole world was shaken by events in South Ossetia. Georgia under the pretext of ensuring territorial integrity suddenly began barbarous aggression. It was necessary "to force" quickly it to the world.
In the history there are a lot of similar examples. To take at least events of 1938 from the lake Hassan. On fatal combination of circumstances operations began almost in at one time … with a difference only in 70 years. Japanese aggressors too should "be forced to the world" …
"March to Ural"
In the second half 30-x years Japanese heads even more often began to declare need of preparation of war against the Soviet Union. In February, 1937 the general Hayasi came to the power. At the first meeting of the government run by it he declared that "liberalism policy concerning communists will be finished". In the press appeals to "march to Ural" began to sound.
In May - June, 1938 in Japan powerful propaganda preparation was developed. Suddenly territories on Manzhou's border - Guo with the Russian Primorye, despite the Hunchunsky agreement of Russia with China of 1886, suddenly were "disputable". Japanese began to declare openly that the border area of the USSR near the lake Hassan is the Manchurian earth. Having used an aggravation of a political situation in Europe, they decided to test durability of Far East borders. If they managed to snip off a slice of the Soviet territory, capture of all Far East would be the following step. And maybe, as they dreamed, and all territory to Ural …
At the beginning of July, 1938 the Japanese army began preparation for military operations. About 20 thousand people were thrown into the lake area Hassan. Except infantry, Japanese had the cavalry crew, three separate machine-gun battalions, tanks, heavy artillery, armored trains, antiaircraft guns, to 70 warplanes.
Fights proceeded 12 days
Demands officially made in Moscow and threats of Japanese diplomats became a prelude by the beginning of operations. The chargê d'affaires of Japan in the USSR demanded a conclusion of the Soviet frontier guards from heights near the lake Hassan.
In reply to it in the National commissariat of foreign affairs showed the card and the agreement where it was noted that is the Soviet territory. In five days the ambassador repeated again claims and in addition made the statement that if requirements of Japan won't be fulfilled, it will use force …
Japanese decided to pass from words to business. On July 23 Japanese parts began to expel inhabitants from border villages. Soon in the district there were firing positions of artillery, armored trains approached, in Peter the Great Bay destroyers plied.
One of boundary groups suddenly underwent attack. Next day the Japanese company took boundary height the Devil's mountain. And early in the morning on July 23 under fog cover Japanese armies passed frontier and intruded on the territory of the USSR. The first battle was accepted by 11 frontier guards headed by the assistant to the chief of an outpost Alexey Makhalin who protected height Anonymous. Within several hours they beat off attacks repeatedly superior forces of the opponent. From eleven survived only six, Alexey Makhalin who was posthumously awarded ranks of the Hero of the Soviet Union was lost also. For any time Japanese seized Anonymous, but the appeared in time frontier guards beat out them from there.
Next day attack of Japanese army repeated. Our soldiers hardly beat off one for other attacks of the opponent. Persistent fights within two days showed that it not a usual borderline case, and is more similar to war.
At 3 o'clock in the morning on July 31 Japanese took very important hills in the strategic relation Anonymous and Zaozernaya. The alarmed parts of the Far East front which Blyukher ordered, received a task to beat out the enemy from the seized territory. But approach of our main forces was complicated by continuous pouring rains and indistinct roads. On it, generally - that, the opponent also counted, believing that in cross-country conditions and the marshland of Red army it will be difficult to develop the armies.
From - for viscosity of soil tanks moved very slowly and were good targets for artillery. Very often they got stuck on crossings.Even in day of storm by our army - on August 6 - from 43 tanks participating in attack, a first line of defense of the opponent reached everything 10. To the aid of frontier troops approached 40-I a division, 32-I a shooting division and 2-I the mechanized crew, reduced in 39-й the shooting case. Bloody fights proceeded some days, but it wasn't possible to beat out the opponent from hills.
The private of a stock former machine gunner Mrayev remembered (The memory book. 1923-1940-е years): "… We arrived to Zaozernuyu in the evening, was already dark. Japanese met us a strong gun-fire. To tell the truth, we, the young fighters who haven't been fired, were frightened was at first …. Almost till the dawn we moved ahead on water and a bog, on canes … In the morning we saw in the battlefield the killed and wounded fighters. Here it strengthened at once rage to the enemy, and fear was gone. Hatred and desire to revenge Japanese for our lost companions came to soul.
… Japanese per day rushed to 20 and more times. Fights for a minute didn't stop. The strongest fights were in the last day. From an armored train on us let out for a short time 300 shells …"
There is no Hassan to "bloody dogs" at the lake
Hasansky events caused unprecedented patriotic growth over all country. Meetings took place in Novosibirsk at all enterprises in the afternoon and even at night (for those who worked in a night shift). Workers expressed anger concerning actions of Japanese soldiery, took obligations unanimously to have absolute "coverage by a subscription" on a loan to a monthly wages fund, urged to work even better: to increase labor productivity, to improve quality of production, ahead of schedule to implement the production plan.
At Trud plant on meeting there were 900 people, at Standart factory - about 500. In printing house N 1 the typesetter Burchevsky on behalf of collective declared that on party and government call all staff of printing house with rifles in hands will rise in defense of our Homeland. About same spoke at all enterprises of Novosibirsk. Young patriots on the job seized flight business, finished courses of shooters, handed over norms on the GTO, GSO badges, the Voroshilovsky shooter and the parachutist.
On meeting in Novosibirsk river port the resolution was adopted: "… Let bandits will strong remember that we stand up for the world and we defend a cause of peace, but to us their threats aren't terrible. Our people are ready to answer with destroying blow blow of warmongers.
Not to ransack to Japanese jackals on open spaces of the Soviet land.
It is mighty and грозен 170 - the million people in the anger. We will crush the enemy in mighty blow, from where it appeared".
They "simply defended" …
On August 9 the Soviet territory already was completely cleared of enemies. Next day Japanese still tried to attack, but their attacks at once beat off. As a result to them remained nothing how to begin negotiations on the termination of military operations and to accept our conditions. On August 11 military operations were stopped.
Quite strange there were negotiations in the National commissariat of foreign affairs in Moscow. The Japanese ambassador categorically declared that armies of Japan take only a defensive position, having a duty to protect the Manchurian territory. On what the Foreign Commissar Litvinov parried: "… Japanese armies, on - visible, have strange idea of defense if they understand attack as it on the Soviet outposts, their shelling and line occupation in the Soviet territory". But, perhaps, the proposal of the Japanese parliamentarian to adopt the agreement on the termination of military operations by armies of both parties most of all surprised Litvinov. Here only armies have to remain in that situation in which they will be found by this document. And then already to define new border …
Hassanis time to rediscover
For heroism and the courage shown in fights at the lake Hassan, 40-I the shooting division was awarded by the Order of Lenin, 32-I and posyetsky frontier group - awards of the Red Banner. 26 people received high ranks of Heroes of the Soviet Union. Among them and our fellow countrymen - Siberians: Moshlyak, Failures, Levchenko, Lazarev. Posthumously the rank of the Hero of the Soviet Union is appropriated to the mechanic - the driver of the tank Rassokhe. Soldiers battled to Japanese Samurais from the Novosibirsk region also. 43 from them didn't return from a battlefield. Many were posthumously awarded by awards of the Red Banner. It is remarkable that in our city already in post-war time there was a Novosibirsk council of veterans - hasanets which was headed by Zinaida Pavlovna Makarenko.
In Russia of such councils was only three: at us, in Omsk and in Khabarovsk. In 1992 in our area lived 60 participants of battles in 1938. Novosibirsk veterans the hasanskikh of fights often gathered. To Fedor Efimovich Ovechkin, Zinaida Pavlovna Makarenko, Maria Minayevna Vaskova, Fedor Stepanovich Sharapov and many other was what to remember and tell. All of them for these fights were awarded by awards and medals. Many protected the Homeland and in the Great Patriotic War.
In Novosibirsk, at N 135 school, in 1971 the museum 32-й was open for the shooting division participating in military operations at the lake Hassan. And at high school N 88 the museum of border troops - only from Ural to Vladivostok is created. There is a card of military operations, photos of participants of fights, their documents, the things, the written-down memoirs. The main thing that about the hasanskikh events of 1938 and their heroes remembered not only in connection with anniversaries, and knew and remembered always.
Many experts consider that Hassan is time to rediscover: and for serious researches of scientists, and for people. Events on Hassan at all their complexity and ambiguity showed military power of the USSR. And defeat of Japanese army became one of the main reasons keeping Japan from performance against the USSR in days of World War II. The history is always ready to present useful lessons, it is important to acquire only them and not to repeat mistakes.