Bloody boys of a dynasty of Romanov

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Source: "Round the world"

The history of the Russian imperial house began with hanging of the four-year-old child, and came to the end with execution of all family. In February, 1613 the Russian history made the next turn. Whether there was it continuation of a former way or the new road? Perhaps, both that and another.

In the state where - that on the suburb of Europe there was a new governor, the seventeen-year-old painful young man who has been grown up by philoprogenitive aunts in close rooms with low ceilings, badly educated not only on West European, but even to the moskovitsky measures, dependent on imperious mother and the skilled politician, the father. And this young man had to become the ancestor of a dynasty, his descendants should rule the huge empire … But hardly anyone - that of contemporaries in Moskovia or beyond its limits, looking at young Mikhail Fedorovich (1596-1645), would decide to predict to him brilliant prospects.

Once it seemed to us that the Russian history isn't too mysterious. Of it we were convinced by school and high school textbooks. But now - that is known to us that in the Russian history it is enough various mysterious moments. Secrets surrounded with dense fog and Mikhail, the ancestor of a dynasty which was fated to become so great, peculiar and tragic as a dynasty, for example, Ptolemeev Lagidov in the Hellenistic Egypt (the IV-I century BC).

And the first riddle consisted in the origin of family to which young Mikhail Fedorovich belonged. By the time of its accession this sort had, in effect, three pro-ranks: Cat's, Zakharyina, Romanov … They had to remind of a certain Roman Zakharyin Koshkin (mind. 1543) which wasn't the great commander or the statesman, he even lived not really long, and sudden triumph some kind of didn't see. But what it was for triumph? And there was it a legal marriage of the daughter of Roman Anastasius (apprx. 1530-1560) with Ivan Vasilyevich who has hardly above boyhood who became history under Ivan the Terrible's name (1530-1584).The girl Anastasia became his first spouse and therefore to the most lawful in the opinion of church, namely the church supervised that is called ideological climate of Moskovia, the far state which has turned into board of Ivan the Terrible from the principality in a kingdom! Thus, Roman Koshkin's family appeared related to the first Russian queen. This relationship very much was useful to them, after all anything, except this relationship, the family wasn't remarkable. It and eminence - that didn't differ.

Meeting of the Territorial Cathedral of 1613. On this Cathedral the new tsar Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov was elected. The territorial Cathedral represented council of representatives of different social groups of the Moscow Russia. It was convoked for discussion of the most important political, economic and social problems. From only 1549 to 1653 6 Cathedrals took place. Historians argue on what estates took part in these councils. One as, for example, R. Belyaev, assume that there were even peasants. Others (B. Romanov), are sure that the entrance on the Cathedral was open only for boyars and noblemen. The above-stated miniature is taken from the manuscript "Election on M. F. Romanov's kingdom" 1673. Modern historians consider that her author strongly idealized that occurred on the Cathedral actually

Ipatiev Trinity Monastery. Kostroma. It is founded in 1330 accepted Orthodoxy Tatar by a murzy Couple, the founder of a family of Godunov (at one time in a monastery there was their tomb). In the Time of Troubles sixteen-year-old Mikhail Romanov and his mother here disappeared from Poles инокиня Marfa. Exactly here on March 14, 1613 there arrived the Moscow embassy which has brought the solution of the Territorial Cathedral about election of Mikhail. In Troitsk the monastery temple ambassadors announced to Mikhail national will. After six hours of arrangements Mikhail agreed. Photo: Sergey Mikhaylovich Prokudin - Mountain from archive of Library of the Congress of the USA

It is backdating thought up already then an origin of the first representative of family Andrey Kobyla (mind.1351) from the governor прусов Vidvunga! Actually of this Andrey Kobyle of it also it isn't known, it is possible to assume only that he had a seigniorial rank in board of the grand Moscow duke Simeon Gordy (1317-1353), the son Ivan Kalita (1283-1341), Andrey Kobyla is mentioned among going for Simeon's bride …

But why it was required to invent an origin from the foreign governor? It is easy for any who is interested in the Russian history to notice that all governors of Russia - Moskovia - Russia were, in fact, "Westerners", sought to enter into the relations with Western Europe, anyway. Yes after all and the first ruling dynasty - Ryurik dynasty - had the West European origin. And Romanov who have replaced Ryurik dynasty were "Westerners" in even bigger degree, not on a real origin, and on belief. And it not because chose after long reflections this most "western" way of development, and only because other way for them wasn't. They initially had to lean on the union with the European monarchs as houses all knew that Romanov "худородны", and after all were live in Moskovia and Ryurik dynasty, both Gediminovichi, and descendants of noble Mongolian families. And it was necessary to secure itself against possible claims the allied relations with Western Europe, dynastic marriages. But all this waited still ahead.

It should be noted that a course was to the west conducted already and to Romanov. Reforming army, Ivan the Terrible leaned on mercenaries, musketeers and pikiner. And Boris Godunov (1552-1605) sent the citizens to England - to study, and tried to arrange the "European" marriage of the daughter. About False Dmitriy (mind. 1606) and there is nothing to speak. It already called itself(himself) the emperor and suggested the Moscow boyars to wash hands before food. Than it for it came to an end, we know. And who could think that already at fragile Mikhail Fedorovich's grandson boyars not only will wash up hands, but even will shave beards!.

Metropolitan Philaret. Philaret at heart was the secular person. It church questions never interested. Much more it the policy attracted. And the politician it was good. It, in principle, wasn't against the Moscow throne was occupied by the Polish prince Vladislav. But for this purpose that had to accept Orthodoxy. When the Territorial Cathedral chose in tsars of the son Philaret - Mikhail Romanov, the metropolitan became, actually, his sopravitel. It took itself(himself) a title "Great sovereign" and returned to itself, against all church rules, a middle name, having become Philaret Nikitich.Reproduction from a site Art-the catalog

However, at Boris Godunov on any brilliant future Roman Koshkin's descendants couldn't count. The family underwent disgrace. They didn't please the tsar Boris with precedent! After all it actually proved the rights for a throne relationship with the tsar Fedor (1557-1598), the son of Grozny. Sister Godunova, Irina (mind. 1633) I was Fedor's wife. But after all Roman Koshkin's daughter was the spouse of the very first grand duke Moscow, officially getting married on a kingdom. And Fedor Ivanovich had to Anastasia Romanovna the son … In other words, Cat's - Romanov could declare quite that have not less, and, on the contrary, Boris Godunov there are more than rights for a throne, than! And Godunov took measures - subjected them to serious disgrace. Fedor Nikitich and his wife Ksenia were cut and subsequently became known in the history as Marfa (mind grows old. 1631) and patriarch Philaret (mind. 1633). Little Mischa and his sister Tatyana remained on care of aunts …

What was farther? Some historians, supporters of the version of the Moscow origin of the False Dmitry, even believe that cunning Romanov managed to organize an intrigue and for a start to push on Grigory Otrepyev's throne - "the person" that is called. But this version breaks about stones of elementary logic. The impostor couldn't be Grigory Otrepyev in any way which, in turn, really was "from the yard" Romanov. Moscow wasn't the big city, and to be there under the guise of the son Ivan the Terrible of the people, too many known (namely I was such Rags), wouldn't risk. Possibly, the impostor was the Pole or at the worst the Italian. Having declared it the fluent monk from the seigniorial yard, the Moscow governors tried simply - напросто to discredit it in what succeeded subsequently!

However, and Ivan the Terrible's son Otrepyev couldn't be in any way. Thanks to Boris Godunov who has "dressed up" a careful consequence about death of the boy Dmitry (1582-1591). The remained papers artlessly draw such truthful and bright picture of an epileptic illness, it isn't necessary what to doubt: this boy wouldn't live long, he had heavy attacks, and his personality already started degrading...

But the former Fedor Nikitich Romanov, already Philaret, the False Dmitry origin didn't interest, apparently. Romanov managed to swear it on fidelity thanks to what they were returned from the link.

Further the real leapfrog of the Raman oaths began. Swore the second Dmitry (mind.1610) nicknamed "The Tushino thief", swore Vasily Shuysky (1553-1612), swore, at last, and to one more applicant approved by the moskovitsky aristocracy - the young Polish prince Vladislav (1595-1648). Philaret himself went to Poland. Also I stayed there long enough. Subsequently - besides! - the version about it "the Polish capture" was thought up. But why to take him prisoner, it was on the party of the Polish party!.

While Philaret settled difficult relations with Poles, his son was elected the Moscow tsar. Philaret then managed to agree with Polish "colleagues", and protests from their party meanwhile didn't follow.

Scientists argue why all - Mikhail came to be on a kingdom. Different hypotheses are made. The historians living in board of Romanov, were compelled, like Nikolay Kostomarov (1817-1885), to write that anybody supposedly to the Russian people it wasn't lovelier than Romanov, injured by Boris Godunov, wishing to live on age-old canons. All this isn't confirmed by the remained documentary certificates. To live on old times any there Romanov didn't intend at all, and continued Boris Godunov and Ivan the Terrible's westernized course … The Soviet historians were able to afford to be not so naive and therefore assumed that boyars elected Mikhail, including its weak-willed and wishing to govern. But they couldn't consider his father powerless in any way and mother weakness of will obviously didn't differ.

Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov's election on a kingdom in the Russian culture became a symbol of full unity of the people and the power - an exclusive event in the history of Russia. The Russian intelligetion idealized it (as well as the author of this picture Grigory Ugryumov) and took for confirmation of possibility of revival in the Russian society of the principle of conciliarity, that is general love and a brotherhood. It is known that the intellectuals were deceived. Unfortunately, she didn't know who, actually, assigned to the young tsar Shapka Monomakh. Reproduction from a site Art-the catalog

But there is more to come. Who elected Mikhail? In textbooks it is written - the Territorial Cathedral. And that represented this territorial cathedral, not clearly and still. Whether he resembled democratic Mongolian kurultai or was reduced to arrangement of small group of the nobility? And what nobility (one boyars we had some ranks)? By the way, such persons applied for a throne, as the prince Ivan Golitsyn (mind. 1672) consisting in consanguinity with Ryurik dynasty.What there all - occurred? Light is shed found in the middle of 1970-x years by the document under the name "The Story about a Territorial Cathedral of 1613". And here what picture appears: Moscow is actually blocked by the Cossack groups, houses of applicants are surrounded. Cossacks resolutely lobby young Mikhail Romanov's election! Therefore it and … chose!

We will try to understand whom called Cossacks in the XVII century. It were some kind of kondotyer, the free armed hunters of good luck. They were employed that in one army, in another, to Pozharsky, to the Polish hetman Zholkevsky (1547-1620) … It is necessary to tell that Romanov didn't keep the promises and didn't give to Cossacks those territories about which there was a speech. It became the reason of serious Cossack performances from which Razin's movements (apprx. 1630-1671) and Pugacheva (1740/42-1775) are best-known. The last, by the way, promised at last - to execute that promised and "to grant" Cossacks in "eternal and free possession" Don "with all meadows green, with all woods dark" …

So, Romanov received the power. But after all it was necessary also to hold it. And the situation appeared not such idle time. It was necessary to destroy the most important applicants, that is, first of all, Marina Mnishek (apprx. 1588 - apprx. 1614) and her son, little Ivan to whom four years were hardly executed. Marina's claims were based on that circumstance that she was officially crowned, "is spread on a kingdom", and her son formally was Ryurikovich, Ivan the Terrible's grandson! Formally, of course, instead of actually, but in this case and this "formality" mattered … However Marina and her son were grabbed and executed. The decree about a public execution of the four-year-old child became the first important act of the new tsar. It already was something new in world practice!

Usually objectionable children - applicants quietly smothered a pillow in any dark vault. But Mikhail couldn't such afford, he reasonably was afraid of emergence subsequently the impostor, "wonderfully escaped". (By the way, such impostor, a certain Ivan Luba, subsequently all the same was, but business it, of course, didn't burn out. ) Therefore execution of the boy was public. The Russian documents fixed simply: hung up! But foreign sources report other. Dutch Elías Gerkman published in 1625 of an attestation of eyewitnesses of public hanging of the small crying child … Left that the first Romanov executed the last Ryurikovich from the branch occurring from Alexander Nevsky (1220-1263).And three hundred years later the history turned back a tragic zigzag - execution in far Siberia where Romanov will banish three hundred years in a row the political opponents, the boy, the last representative of a ruling branch …

But Romanov at the very beginning of their board had no time for a sentimentality. We can assume, as the order on little Ivan's public execution was given actually not by Mikhail, and his imperious mother, Marfa grows old. It also selects to the son the first bride, the girl from a family of the relatives Hlopov. Young Marya name solemnly new name - Anastasia, once again reminding all of the relationship with the queen first in the Russian history. Was to become relatives of the new queen, certainly, and this time it is prestigious and favorable. The hard knot of various intrigues twists. And here just and Philaret returns home. The prospect of the Russian marriage of Mikhail is rejected.

The skilled politician, Philaret looks for allies in the West. Where? Certainly, there, from where a sort Ryurik dynasty where Boris Godunov, in Denmark looked for the groom of the daughter. However the Danish king Christiaan IV (1577-1648) refuses a hand of the niece. The Swedish king Gustav - Adolf (1594-1632) too refuses, doesn't wish to give the princess Ekaterina. Europe doesn't recognize Romanov' newborn dynasty.

Prince Vladislav (Future Polish king Vladislav IV of VAZ). In 1610 at the height of the Distemper, the Moscow seigniorial government (Semiboyarshchina) swore it on fidelity, having made the Moscow king. Formally it remained it till October 26, 1612 when the Polish garrison holding the fort of the Kremlin

was given

Philaret decides to be content meanwhile with the local nobility and celebrates a wedding of the son with the princess Maria Dolgorukova. But soon Mikhail's young wife dies (1625). That served as a cause of death of this Ryurikovna, it isn't known. But it is known that several times Dolgorukova - Dolgorukiy will try to approach by means of the women the Raman throne, but these attempts won't be crowned with success neither for Pyotr's III (1728-1762) bride, nor for Alexander's II favourites (1818-1881). At last ambitions are temporarily left, not notable noblewoman Eudoxia Streshneva (mind becomes Mikhail's wife. 1645). It gave rise to it to ten children, but only three daughters and the son, future tsar Alexey Mikhaylovich (1629-1676) survived.

Later short time Romanov oath of allegiance to Vladislav hallooed. He grew up and didn't wish to recognize as the tsar of the person who formally was his citizen.In 1632 the war costing to Moskovia Smolensk and Chernigovsko - Seversk lands began. But in 1634 the king Vladislav nevertheless refused claims for the Moscow throne and recognized Mikhail as the tsar.

The last years Mikhail Fedorovich's boards were saddened by the heavy internal political conflict. Documents informed to us data on the certain plot which exposure caused long lawsuit and repressions. The queen fell ill, two tsarevitches died one by one. And at last the next attempt to improve the close relations with Europe failed. Mikhail Fedorovich wanted to give out for the European the oldest daughter Irina (1627-1679). This time the tsar agreed even to the illegal royal son Danish king Christiaan IV - Voldemara (1622-1697). This twenty-year-old young man carried a title of count of Shlezvig - Golshteynsky. But the wedding didn't take place. Church, continuing to play a role "monopolistic" in the ideology sphere, I didn't wish marriage of the tsarevna with not orthodox prince. The church was force, owned lands and serfs. The prince, in turn, didn't wish to concede and didn't wish to change belief. The conflict was tightened. The young man came to be actually in moskovitsky to captivity. It was released and released home only after Alexey Mikhaylovich's accession.

In 1645 the tsar Mikhail Fedorovich died. Hardly the tsar died happy, after all he left the young son to the mercy of fate that is called. But this destiny was favorable nearly three hundred more years to Romanov' dynasty, and already great grandson Pyotr brilliantly continued policy of the father, the grandfather, the great-grandfather, and brought the state to a greatness way...


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