Within 600 years the Russian monarchs intensively broadened subject territories. The small Moscow principality to the XIX century turned into the empire which occupied the sixth part of all land. This enormous space unevenly was populated. In central, western and North - western parts of the country lived 80% of all podatny population. The East, North - the East and the South remained almost deserted.
THE CITIES - PHANTOMS
Development of new lands took place in various ways. In Siberia pioneers built the small strengthened towns - jails where small garrisons from Sagittariuses and Cossacks took place. Fortresses acquired over time craft посадами and turned into the cities.
All Russian historians speak about peace development of Siberia and the Far East, however it isn't absolutely correct. The increment of these territories practically was always accompanied by local wars with local tribes which didn't wish to become the podatny population of the empire. Such fortified cities existed 300 years and disappeared from a map of the country only at the beginning of the XIX century.
Northern Black Sea Coast and the Crimea accustomed differently. There were no hostile tribes. Rebellious Zaporozhye Sech was destroyed in 1775 when need for border Cossack service disappeared.
Catherine II wanted to occupy Novorossiya the law-abiding people. Enormous land a latifundium were distributed to the German colonists and the Russian noblemen who gave the obligation "to equip the steppe with villages and farms".
The state budget provided expensive articles on development of new lands. Creation of infrastructure of the new cities, grants "on acquisition of foreign grain-growers", construction of post stations, courier services, quarantine customs, etc., etc. - all this demanded capital investments.
Implementation of the budget began in the Governmental Senate which distributed money on provincial treasuries, and further … and further everything fell into hands of governors. Abuses began with an expenditure of target funds for development of the cities.
In the middle of the XVIII century the Senate considered eight (!) cases "about the nonexistent cities".The governor of Siberia prince Gagarin provided in financial board the report on expenses of budgetary funds for the maintenance of police, the device of officials and class justices in four nonexistent cities of Siberia and the Far East. These cities received diplomas and underwent all senatorial procedure of legalization.
Volchansk, Biryulev, Tashtyk and Drulev became the full cities of the Russian Empire. Within 10 years all budgetary funds of these cities directly went to a pocket of the governor. The cities - phantoms - the widespread phenomenon of corruption acts of officials at that time. They existed in the Orenburg steppes, the Volga region and Turkestani edge. Sensational senatorial investigations long time were a subject of discussion in the highest governmental numbers of the country.
When on November 10, 1789 Grigory Potemkin addressed to the queen with the vsepoddanneyshy report No. 84 in which asked to approve for Nikolayev the city status - according to the policeman to situation of 1775, Catherine II treated this request with big suspicion. On December 23 the same year she writes the letter Auber - to the prosecutor of the Senate Leonid Durnovo: "Look narrowly at our South, the sweetest prince Leonid. I suspect that the Lightest started "baking pancakes" with any cities. I them already counted three pieces. Probably, old ghosts of a kolodnik of Gagarin haunt the field marshal …". CITY REAL
The queen decided to keep silent. However the retired favourite, a month later, again began to throw the empress letters. Yury Kryuchkov "Stories of Nikolaev" provides one quote in the from Potemkin's such letter: "Having chosen very favorable place for a structure of the ships at a confluence of the river of Ingul of Bug and учредя there shipyard, I settle this place under the name of the city of Nikolaev about what, всеподданнейше having informed your Imperial Majesty, I ask the Greatest for these approbations".
Catherine II was silent. She considered Potemkin as the visionary and didn't believe that for such short terms in the Wild field there can be blossoming shopping and industrial centers.
Correspondence was intensive, and the reality viscous treacle clouded agonal enthusiasm of the governor of the won Taurida. In Nikolaev there are no petty bourgeoises, merchants and handicraftsmen. There is no clergy and noblemen. One military. Shipyards too aren't present. All city - one continuous dugouts and an unfinished building berth from the rotten wood … In total. What city? ! What shipyard? !
"What there at the Lightest happens? - the empress requests from the elisavetgradsky military commandant Iosif Meller.- It left me the letters and more doesn't strive on naval projects. Mail in my South is adjusted absolutely badly …".
Potemkin fell ill. However in three months correspondence is resumed. "Don't leave my request without answer. The shipyard is already adjusted, and to the Cover there will arrive from the Eagle my builders. It is necessary to equip this wild place …".
Ekaterina answers the friend: "It has heard a lot, has heard a lot, the prince, about affairs of your faithful. Oryol I will fill peasants with interest. Be under construction, without spekh, and with shipyard вердиктствует the Senate …".
The queen doesn't want to give to Nikolaev the status of the city and under different pretexts tightens the edition "Most gracious decree".
At the beginning of September, 1790 the former favourite doesn't maintain and dictates the desperate letter in Sankt - Petersburg: "The day before yesterday there arrived supplies of a nut walnut, a rod of grapes of gishpansky. It will be possible to break park in the estate by spring … Darkly in eyes, and the breast zapekly уголью burns, I will live up to dawn, I will see the city ready, I don't know right now …".
Female heart didn't sustain. The empress "broke" and issued the nominal Decree about talent of the status of the city of Nikolaev in the middle of October, 1790. However, as Yury Kryuchkov writes, "Potemkin's victory was incomplete: Nikolaev was enlisted not in the full cities of the Russian Empire, and in unimportant, i.e. it wasn't included in the list ("staff") of the cities of Russia, and remained the military city "behind staff" which was subject to management of the military governor. On - visible, hurriedly the decree about talent of the status of the city printed in one copy - specially for Potemkin who left, having taken away it with itself, and in the Ruling Senate forgot to give the copy for its reproduction. And there was Nikolaev the city without official decree in the Code of laws of the Russian Empire. And for the first time Nikolaev as the city is mentioned in "A complete collection of laws" only in 1795".
We will agree with this romantic hypothesis of dear author. Heavy legal start of our city didn't influence its development. Nikolaev appeared informally, without government decree. It was expected interesting, on anything not by similar life.