Mushrooms represent monocelled and multicellular, various by the sizes and a structure organisms. There are about 100 thousand species of mushrooms. One of the largest ecological groups are the soil mushrooms playing an important role in a mineralization of organic substances, soil formation and increase of fertility of the soil. In the territory of the CIS about 3 thousand types the shlyapochnykh of mushrooms meet. However are used in food and only 30-40 widely known types are prepared.
Mushrooms represent absolutely special type of vegetable food since they contain the substances peculiar to products not only vegetable, but also an animal origin. In particular, the main part of carbohydrates contains in mushrooms in the form of a glycogen (1,6-9%), similar to what is postponed in a liver of animals. Proteins (1,6-9%), lipids (0,4-6%) are a part of mushrooms; the last contain connections necessary for an organism - lecithin, fatty acids. Nutritional value of mushrooms is caused also by existence of other biologically important substances, including extractive (for example, free amino acids, фунгина), being stimulators of gastric secretion, and also vitamins, mineral salts, microcells. Almost all mushrooms contain vitamin C, group B vitamins (RR, pantothenic and folic acids), the pro-vitamin D, some mushrooms - pro-vitamin A. The mineral structure of mushrooms is characterized by the high content of salts of phosphorus, in smaller quantity - salts of potassium, calcium, iron. From microcells zinc, iodine, copper, manganese prevail. The relative content of water in mushrooms on the average 90%.
Cellulose and the chitin containing in cellular covers, aren't split by digestive juice, reducing comprehensibility of nutrients of mushrooms. At the same time cellulose and chitin stimulate an intestines vermicular movement that well influences digestion processes.
It must be kept in mind that at diseases zheludochno - an intestinal path, a liver, kidneys, at the diseases connected with a metabolic disorder (for example, at gout), the use in food of mushrooms and mushroom broths contraindicated in connection with the high content of extractive substances (36-56%), existence in them the purinovykh of bases and specific aromatic substances (pitches, essential oils).
Mushrooms divide on edible, conditionally edible, and poisonous. Proceeding from nutritiousness and tastes, the mushrooms used in food, conditionally divide into 4 categories (1-I category - the highest). All young mushrooms are much more nutritious than the old. Edible fungi treat such at which fruit bodies don't contain the bitterness, harmful substances or have no unpleasant smell. These mushrooms don't need special preliminary preparation. The Polish mushroom, chestnut mushroom, slippery jack, mossiness mushroom, kinds of a field mushroom, russula, violet blewits, black podgruzdok (chernushka) belong to edible fungi cepe and its versions, an aspen mushroom, a birch mushroom, a saffron milk cap, chanterelle, козляк (kid), a honey agaric, дубовик.
As the conditionally edible consider mushrooms which contain toxic substances, have bitter taste or an unpleasant smell, but lose these properties at special preliminary processing. Kinds of a milk mushroom belong to conditionally edible fungi, is creaked, a serushka, a gorkushka, a krasnushka, an euphorbia, a coral milky cap, a laserwort, валуй, a morel (real, conic), a smorchkovy hat, a strochok. To use these mushrooms and food it is possible only after a soaking, boiling and removal of broth, after посола and picklings or after long preliminary drying. So, all milk mushrooms before the zasoly soak and boil. Morels need to be boiled thoroughly previously within 15-20 min. (thus harmful substances are dissolved in boiling water), then to merge broth, and carefully to wash out mushrooms water. After such processing mushrooms become quite edible and suitable for the subsequent culinary processing. Lines contain a number of toxic substances (in particular, гирометрин) which collapse only at oxidation by air oxygen. Therefore optimum way of preliminary preparation of strochok is their drying in a shadow, in well aired room within 3-4 weeks (it is possible to finally dry them and on the sun). Such method allows to avoid possible, sometimes very serious poisoning.Many conditionally edible fungi (for example, food and turning gray russulas, валуи, coral milky caps, gorkushka, skripitsa) use in food only salty or marinaded (after a preliminary soaking or boiling). Such culinary processing promotes elimination of caustic (bitter) taste and an unpleasant smell.
Poisonous mushrooms contain strong toxic substances which cause in the person of poisoning. Poisonous mushrooms treat: pale toadstool, fly agaric (panterny, red, smelly, porphyritic), a volokonnitsa патуйяра, a blewits a chamois - yellow, a field mushroom of ryzheyushchiya, a govorushka voskovaty, a devilish mushroom, a mushroom - a drill umbrella - pink. The svinushka which was earlier considered as conditionally edible fungi is among poisonous mushrooms also. Found in a svinushka мускарин collects in concentration hazardous to health and doesn't collapse at any way of preliminary processing of mushrooms. Besides, the svinushka more than other mushrooms, accumulates harmful compounds of heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium), containing in exhaust gases of cars and in industrial wastes of the productions considerably polluting environment (including reservoirs, the soil).
Insufficient preliminary processing or the wrong storage can be the reason of poisoning with conditionally edible fungi. So, at poisoning with morels and lines in 5-10 h after the use of mushrooms in food there are a nausea, vomiting, belly-aches, in hard cases jaundice develops, the liver, kidneys are surprised. At a serious poisoning there can be a consciousness loss, a convulsive attack. The deadly outcome is possible.
The clinical picture of poisoning with poisonous mushrooms is caused by a type of mushroom toxin. The general manifestation of poisoning is the severe defeat zheludochno - an intestinal path. Loss of a large amount of liquid with an emetic masses and excrements leads to organism dehydration. Vodno - electrolytic violations can be accompanied by gipovolemichesky shock, lead to development sharp warmly - vascular, hepatic and kidney insufficiency
Most hard proceeding poisonings are caused by a pale toadstool. For development of a serious poisoning with a deadly outcome it is enough to eat small part of a mushroom; children are especially sensitive. The first symptoms of poisoning can appear later 10-24 h after the mushroom use in food and are shown by sudden sharp belly-aches, vomiting, a diarrhea.Excrements liquid, watery, remind rice broth, sometimes with blood impurity. There are a cyanosis, tachycardia, the HELL decreases. Then there is a jaundice, develops pechenochno - the kidney insufficiency, quite often being accompanied twitchings of muscles. The death can come owing to sharp warmly - vascular or pechenochno - kidney insufficiency.
Symptom of poisoning with the fly agarics containing alkaloids (for example, мускарин), appear already in 1-11/2 h and are characterized by belly-ache, nausea, unrestrained vomiting, a diarrhea. The increased salivation, sharp perspiration, миоз (narrowing of pupils), bradycardia are noted; excitement, nonsense, hallucinations, spasms develop.
Cases of mass poisoning for a mushroom - a drill umbrella - pink are known. Symptoms of poisoning appear in 10-14 h after the use of mushrooms in food. A stomach pains, unrestrained vomiting, a diarrhea, in excrements quite often blood impurity are noted. Especially hard poisoning at children proceeds. In the absence of treatment the deadly outcome is possible.
It is necessary to remember that the gastroenteritis phenomena (vomiting, a diarrhea) are observed also at food the toksikoinfektsiyakh, however they develop usually earlier - in 2-3 h after reception.
What to do at poisoning with mushrooms. The success of treatment at poisoning with mushrooms depends not so much on initial weight of a condition of the patient, how many on how quickly it is begun. In many respects it is caused by specific impact of mushroom toxin on structure of cages. Persons with suspicion on poisoning with mushrooms or at the first symptoms of poisoning need to be hospitalized, it is desirable in specialized medical institution for carrying out the dezintoksikatsionnykh of actions. At impossibility of emergency hospitalization the victim is given first aid which consists in immediate washing of a stomach and intestines clarification (the washing waters containing the undigested remains of mushrooms, it is necessary to deliver in a hospital).
For stomach washing to the patient allow to drink 2-3 glasses of water, solution of a hydrocarbonate of sodium, or baking soda (1 tablespoon on 1 l of water), weak (pink) solution of permanganate of potassium (potassium permanganate) then cause vomiting. This procedure is repeated by 10-15 times before pure allocation without food and slime impurity.To clarification of intestines apply laxative (25-50 g of sulfate of the magnesium dissolved in 1/2-1 glasses of water, or 20-30 g of sulfate of the sodium dissolved in 1-1/2 glasses of water, 50 ml of castor oil), do cleaning enemas. After washing of a stomach and intestines clarification for completion of losses of liquid and salts victims are given the added some salt water (2 teaspoons of table salt on 1 glass of water, or регидрон 1 упак. on a water glass) which should be drunk cooled, small drinks; also strong tea or coffee is recommended. At poisoning with mushrooms it is impossible to take alcoholic beverages since they promote faster absorption of mushroom toxin.
The forecast at in due time begun and correctly carried out treatment with use of modern methods of detoksikatsionny therapy in most cases the favorable. The lethal outcome at poisonings with mushrooms is connected, as a rule, with late diagnostics and inopportuneness of an initiation of treatment.
Prevention of poisonings by mushrooms is based on care observance when collecting mushrooms. By no means it is impossible to collect doubtful or unknown species of mushrooms. It isn't necessary to gather the corroded, old and spoiled mushrooms since they also can cause poisoning (e.g., old mushrooms often contain products of decomposition of the proteins, having an adverse impact on an organism). It is necessary to remember existence of mushrooms - doubles - the poisonous and inedible mushrooms superficially resembling edible. So, the poisonous devilish mushroom and an inedible bilious mushroom are similar to cepes; with a field mushroom (ordinary and field) the pale toadstool and a mushroom - a drill umbrella - pink have similarity. In prevention of poisonings the correct processing and storage of mushrooms in house conditions are important. Fresh mushrooms aren't subject to long storage. They quickly lose the tastes and spoil therefore to process them follows right after collecting (the maximum period of storage of fresh mushrooms of 18-24 h at a temperature not above 10 °C). It is necessary to observe strictly rules of special preliminary processing of conditionally edible fungi, and also rules of conservation of mushrooms in house conditions. For these purposes it is impossible to use the zinced and tin ware. It is especially dangerous to preserve mushrooms in hermetically closed ware. Mushrooms can be polluted by disputes of the causative agent of botulism which are badly washed away and aren't destroyed at heat treatment.In anaerobic conditions (hermetically closed ware) they start breeding actively, producing the botulinum toxin causing the hardest poisonings.