According to data of a city antitubercular clinic, for the first half of the year 2008 in Nikolaev for the first time ached with tuberculosis of 220 people from whom 82 - bacilli - highlighters, each of which in a year can infect to hundred citizens. This the first six months 2007 and 2006 (for the first time the diseased there were 183 and 165 people respectively) testify that more and more inhabitants of our city meet every year Koch's "artful" stick - the mikobakteriya causing a disease of tuberculosis.
Today in a city antitubercular clinic consists on the accounting of 713 people, from which 633 persons - patients with an active form of tuberculosis of lungs. Also tuberculosis kostno - muscular system, tuberculosis of eyes, urinogenital system, etc. meets. What it is necessary to know not to ache? How to understand, what you have a tuberculosis? To whom to address? These and other questions are answered by the deputy chief physician on medical questions of a city antitubercular clinic Maria Andriyuk.
"Tuberculosis - a social illness, - M. Andriyuk tells. - I analyzed year before last. Then from 373 patients who we had on the account, 229 anywhere didn't work. Among the diseased patients who undereat often meet or are interrupted by temporary earnings".
Addicts, alcoholics, persons without a certain residence, migrants, the refugees released from places of imprisonment also treat social group of risk. To medical group of risk carry patients with diabetes, patients from a bronchial tube - pulmonary pathology (chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, etc.), stomach ulcer, persons who were on the Chernobyl NPP during accident, HIV - infected.
"The medical group of risk is most subject to a disease of tuberculosis. These people have to pass annually inspection, - the physician continues. - This year patients made 40% of all of groups of risk, for the first time the patients with tuberculosis. From 89 patients of 78 people - HIV - infected. They are least protected and there have to pass inspection each two months and if it is necessary - and are more often".
At groups of risk progressing tuberculosis meets. Most difficult with patients with diabetes and HIV - infected as at these patients immunity is strongly reduced, and therefore treatment often doesn't bring any results.
In 6 months 2008 in Nikolaev 42 patients died of tuberculosis (or 9,5 on 100 thousand of population). For the similar period of last year 48 people (or 11,2 on 100 thousand of population) died.
How it is possible to pick up a consumption?
- During contact with the sick person, at which open form of tuberculosis.
- At the use of the products infected with tuberculosis.
- In a life, through subjects or things, the ware belonging to the patient.
- At decrease in immunity owing to a hard work, bad food, stresses, diseases, alcohol intake, etc.
It is possible to meet Koch's stick anywhere: in public transport, on city streets, outdoors. Often the illness which is transferring vozdushno - a drop way, is carried by persons without a certain residence. In the soil, according to M. Andriyuk, mikobakteriya of tuberculosis remain about six months. In sewage, cellars - till one and a half years.
"Persons BUMS get to hospitals, is frequent - passing us, receive treatment, are written out and don't ask for further assistance. It seems, symptoms of intoxication were removed, food was normalized - the patient feels well and thinks that is healthy. And after all if the person didn't recover, soon the exacerbation of a disease" again will repeat, - Maria Mikhaelovna warns.
Therefore groups of the increased risk are under special control of physicians. For example, passport offices don't give out residence permit or a temporary registration without reference about health. This reference have to give out only on the basis a X-ray - inspections. Also in a city antitubercular clinic there is a base of all patients who already met once this disease.
"In many people there lives a tubercular stick. But the immune system protects an organism from it. Under certain conditions (even if there was no contact with the patient) can work social factors: the weakened organism, stressful situation - and a tubercular stick will wake up. Thus the illness develops. Therefore not to ache, it is necessary to lead a healthy lifestyle, properly to eat, seek to improve the zhilishchno - living conditions", - the doctor advises.
It is possible to catch and from animals."Farms, where there are sick animals (generally cows), are under special control of a sanepidemstantion. Today such farms in the Nikolaev area aren't present, - M. Andriyuk assures, - however you shouldn't use in food the raw milk".
Tuberculosis can proceed as catarrhal diseases. The tussiculation, general malaise (symptoms of cold) starts disturbing the person, and in 7-10 days the health it seems as is normalized. Through one and a half - two months everything repeats - tuberculosis so develops.
"If such symptomatology is, it is necessary to address to the doctor and to pass fluorographic inspection. Besides a X-ray - inspections, dab microscopy as defeat which is shown in a x-ray picture, can meet at pneumonia and other pathological diseases is carried out, - M. Andriyuk tells. - Therefore differential diagnostics is carried out. Dab undertakes three times. The more inspections, the detection of a tubercular stick in a phlegm" is more probable.
From the infection moment before radiological manifestations (often at tuberculosis hurts nothing) passes about two months. "The patient can make a X-ray, and in a week to catch. He thinks: why again to be irradiated? But beam load of ours a X-ray - devices almost zero therefore there is nothing to be afraid", - the expert assures.
It is possible to make a X-ray in all city policlinics and medical institutions. Inspection on tuberculosis, as well as its treatment, is carried out free of charge (at the expense of the state).
If at least one of below-mentioned symptoms is present more than 3-x weeks, it is worth addressing to the doctor:
1. Sharp growing thin
2. Long cough
6. Short wind
7. Breast pain
8. Plentiful potovydeleniye
9. Expectoration of blood
How to be protected from tuberculosis?
"To protect children from this disease, to them do BTsZh inoculations in the first day of life, in 7 and 14 years, - M. Andriyuk tells. - I when only came to phthisiology, in 1983, saw the one-year-old child who had tubercular meningitis (I was in contact with sick parents). It deaf and blind. This dangerous disease".
Last year in Nikolaev with tuberculosis one child and one teenager fell ill.
It is possible to cure an illness.The main thing - to address in time to the doctor and to receive medical treatment the full. Depending on extent of defeat by tuberculosis of fabrics of an organism, treatment can last 6-8 months.
"If to address to doctors at the initial stage of development of an illness, the center of defeat can resolve completely. At tuberculosis there is a disintegration of fabrics of an organism (for example lungs) and if the center of defeat is considerable, hems remain for the rest of life", - the doctor speaks.
The Nikolaev area - in the three of leaders of the Ukrainian areas with a high incidence of tuberculosis. But everything who are treated, recover, the doctor assures. Those who interrupted treatment, or who has an accompanying heavy pathology don't recover only.
In old times the infectious disease affecting lungs, called a consumption. From this ancient word the phthisiology name (from "phthisis" - a consumption and "jatreia" - treatment) went. Tuberculosis received the modern name from Latin "tuberculum" - a hillock. The causative agent of a disease designate a tuberculosis mikobakteriya, or Koch's stick