Fight of Kiev against Bucharest for the right to have own channel in the Danube Delta doesn't stop per day. Romanians skillfully use diplomatic and financial resources, the status of the member country of the European Union. They involve the mechanism of the international nature protection conventions which participants are Ukraine and Romania, - Bern, Ramsarsky, Orkhusskoy, Espoo, about Danube River protection. Raise a question of the channel in such influential organizations, as committee of the world heritage of UNESCO and the international commission on protection of the Danube River. Don't forget and about the international and Ukrainian ecological organizations. After all the main argument of Bucharest - the Ukrainian channel passes through the Danube biospheric reserve and does irreparable harm to environment. Kiev considers: influence is minimum. Whose arguments will be more convincing? That will take up: the sovereign right of the state to have the ship canal or egoism of the country, intending to keep monopoly for the water transport ways connecting Danube and the Black Sea?
The other day in Kiev the report of the World fund of the wild nature (WWF) of rather alternative ways of navigation in the Ukrainian Danube Delta was submitted. The experts who have prepared it believe that Kiev should refuse the deep-water ship course (DWSC) Danube - the Black Sea. Certainly, experts note, the channel is convenient for navigation, as he on itself direct and deep-water. But the dam blocking coastal currents, very seriously influences a coastal zone. And planned in the second phase of implementation of the Danube — the Black Sea project deepening of the channel can have "considerable negative effect on the delta as a whole from - for possible changes in character of a drain on all sleeves".
Other business, experts from WWF notice, the Sulinsky channel belonging to Romania. Its dams also negatively influence a coastal zone, it isn't connected with Ukraine, and tariffs for its use can grow in the future. Nevertheless, authors of the report, this channel - "consider the best decision taking into account Danube Delta preservation". And if Kiev so wants to have own way "from the sea to the river", it is necessary to think of other options. For example, to construct the Danube channel - Sasyk or Solomonov a sleeve - the Zhebriyansky bay.But experts note that these options where are more expensive, than through the Fast branch.
Whether but the conclusions drawn by authors of the report of the World fund of the wild nature are so right? Discussion during presentation of the report of WWF showed that opinion of experts in the ecology sphere not such unambiguous as it was would like by opponents of the Ukrainian channel: a number of experts believes that influence of GSH on an ecosystem of the Danube Delta will be local and insignificant. So Nikolay Berlinsky from the Ukrainian scientific center of ecology of the sea considers, in particular: this establishment conducts monitoring of influence of the channel on the Danube Delta. And here that it really negatively influences the Ukrainian part of the Danube Delta, so, N. Berlinsky, hydrotechnical activity of Romania in own territory - on Sulinsk and Georgievsk channels claims. Why? The water drain of all Kiliysky sleeve decreases. As scientists note (and not only Ukrainian), in comparison with the beginning of the XX century it was reduced from 70% to 52%. Decrease in ability of water in the Kiliysky sleeve to self-cleaning can lead to an ecological disaster and destroy the unique Danube Delta.
Reduction of a water drain is influenced by a struyenapravlyayushchy dam on the Romanian cape Izmail Chatal: it blocks considerable part of the Kiliysky sleeve and Sulinsky directs water to a sleeve. Bring the contribution and hydrotechnical works in Georgiyevsky a sleeve which Romanians also plan to make navigable. At the expense of a course flattening its natural length - and is 109,5 km - was already reduced by 30%. As the Ukrainian researchers as process of washout of the straightened sites of a sleeve Of St. George proceeds and today notice, it is necessary to expect that for the first time in two hundred years the share of a drain of the Kiliysky sleeve will make less than a half of a drain of Danube in the top part of the delta! Degradation of the Kiliysky sleeve on which there passes border of Ukraine and Romania, serious changes in an ecosystem of the delta cause also other actions of Romanians - construction in the territory of the artificial water utilities which are selecting annually about two cubic kilometers, dumping in Ukrainian - the Romanian waters of silt and the sand lifted from Sulinsky and sleeves Of St. George.
Accusing Kiev that operation of GSH does irreparable harm to the Danube Delta biosphere, Bucharest prefers not to notice, to what ecological troubles give their own works on channel construction in St. Georgy's sleeve.The flattening of the natural course, dredging works, laying of considerable pieces of the channel on reserved sites of land, fixing of its coast by concrete and stones, construction of transport and communication infrastructure - all this has negative impact on flora and Danube Delta fauna. But Bucharest doesn't pay attention to protests of the ecological and nature protection organizations. And here already under the threat spawning migration of the Danube herring: Of St. George and Sulinsky sleeves are of great importance for this species of fishes. Similar can't but excite Kiev as directly mentions safety of our country. After all the Danube herring - the main object of trade on the Ukrainian site of the river.
According to Kiev, these and other actions of Romanians break a number of provisions of the convention on an assessment of influence on environment in a cross-border context (Espoo): point 1 of article 2, article 3-7, point 9 of addition 1. Therefore Ukraine also appealed in implementation committee of the convention of Espoo to take necessary measures to take in hand Romania. It is expected that the final decision will be made in May, 2011. Yes only and Bucharest isn't idle: accusing Kiev of violation of provisions of this convention, he achieves adoption of the decision favorable to it. Internal deals favor to intentions of Romanians: from forty two members of the convention of Espoo - 27 member countries of the European Union, many states - candidates for the introduction for the European Union. One of them are ready to support Romania, a soklubnik on EU, out of solidarity. Others - because count on support of Bucharest in Brussels. The third as, for example, Moldova, traditionally support Romania. Certainly, the verdict isn't rendered yet. But the general spirit of members of implementation committee casts doubts in their impartiality.
But any their decision, Kiev isn't going to recede from the. The most unpleasant that threatens our country in case of adoption of the negative decision within Espoo's convention, - image deterioration. And here on other bowl of scales lies not only for the state to earn opportunity on transit of the ships. Those who happened in the pridunayskikh the cities and villages, know as far as life of his inhabitants depends on the river. The last one and a half decades of Pridunavye - the depressionny region. GSH gave an impulse for its economic development. Today the channel employed the Ukrainians living in Pridunavye. Thanks to GSH load of the Ukrainian ports of Rennie, Izmail, Kiliya grows.If earlier reniysky and Izmail ports worked half-weeks, and kiliyskiya at all stood idle, now they are loaded all seven days: the quantity of the ships passing through the Fast branch, constantly increases. If in November 2008-го through the channel passed 107 ships, last month - already 150. Thus in November only 108 ships used the Sulinsky channel.
Economic prospects of the Ukrainian channel can't but disturb Romanians: in the future it is expected that the three fifth all Danube freght traffic will switch over to the Ukrainian part of the Danube delta. Judge for yourself: Ukrainian deep-water sudnovy the course is conveniently connected to the sea, has the round-the-clock two-way traffic on natural sleeves of Danube. And here the Sulinsky channel - unilateral, works only in the afternoon and has concrete walls about which, happened, boards of the ships clung. And tariffs which are established for the ships passing on GSH, are much lower, than at his Romanian competitor. If Ukrainians take for the module of a vessel of 14 American cents, Romanians - 40 eurocents. In the conditions of an economic crisis the economy turns out serious. And though the Romanian authorities also appeal to patriotism of the shipowners that those sent the ships via the Sulinsky channel, many prefer the Ukrainian way. Here and the largest metallurgical company Arcelor Mittal in July reoriented delivery of ore to the enterprise in the Romanian city of Galatz through the Ukrainian ship course.
That more and more the ships choose the Ukrainian channel, doesn't cause delight in Romanians. After all with the advent of GSH Danube - the Black Sea they lose not simply the status of the monopolist, and big money. And to support the Sulinsky channel in operating state, huge amounts of money are required. As deposits constantly increase, it is necessary to carry out hydrotechnical works to support in it depth necessary for pass of the ships. By the way, and experts of WWF predict that costs of operation of the Sulinsky channel can sharply increase in the future. So, tariffs will grow also. So though Romanians also explain fight against the Ukrainian channel with care of ecology of Danube, nevertheless the real reason of their objections against GSH - economic.
The state enterprise "The Delta — the Pilot" already finished works within the first phase of the GSH Danube project - the Black Sea. The surface part of a protecting dam of the sea approach channel of 2730 m is already constructed.It blocks coastal currents and protects a ship course from deposits, soil dumps. It not simply allows to stabilize checkpoint size a precipitation on GSH at the level of 5,5 m, but also minimizes negative consequences on environment. On the way - the second stage. He assumes that in the Kiliysky sleeve dredging works will be carried out. It is necessary to deepen, i.e. to liquidate banks, only for 3% of all 170-kilometer length of this sleeve. It isn't comparable with large-scale amount of works which are made by Romanians in Georgiyevsky a sleeve. After completion of the works provided by the second stage, on the Ukrainian channel will be able to pass the ships with an osadka of 7,2 m Besides, in ruslovy part - the Kiliysky sleeve in the mouth Fast - the struyenapravlyayushchy dam is provided still. In addition, bank protection on Fast branch sites is planned.
However, it will be still at a distant day. For a start nevertheless it is necessary to solve a number of the points of order provided by the convention of Espoo, and to try to find mutual understanding with Romanians. Without it it will be difficult for Kiev to realize the second stage of works. For example, employees "The delta - the pilot" told that when vessels left for carrying out necessary within the first stage of the project of dredging works in the Kiliysky channel, the Romanian frontier guards put across the ships. It is improbable that will be possible to change the relation of Bucharest to the Ukrainian project. But it is possible to try to make so that Romanians at least didn't stir its realization. Probably, the only exit - to try to get support of Brussels in this situation, convincing functionaries of the European Union that the channel minimum influences a Danube Delta ecosystem. Now the European Commission develops strategy of EU for the Danube region. This document has to be approved in 2011. In interests of Kiev that in this strategy it was spoken about support of the Ukrainian route as it diversifies waterways of the seventh transport corridor. It will be difficult for Ukraine which isn't the member of the European Union to achieve it. But it is necessary to work. With Brussels, Bucharest, the countries of the European Union and the international nature protection organizations.