The public tax administration established the reasons of deficiency of currency in Ukraine. By means of money transfer schemes abroad and for speculation in the market in 2008 it was bought 17,5 billion dollars. - 9,8 billion dollars - redeemed more than a half of means of a jar for formation opened a currency position. Bankers explain it with need of creation of reserves under the currency credits and minimization of risks. Experts consider that this year shadow schemes become even more popular.
Yesterday the director of the department of the Public tax administration (GNAU) of fight against laundering of income gained by a criminal way, Igor Stelmakhovich declared that the National Bank monitoring system behind currency transactions is ineffective and provokes banks and business "to create powerful constantly operating channels" a currency conclusion abroad. "Today GNAU doesn't take part in control of currency purchase though there was a temporary order" four years ago, - he told. GNAU within three days received information on currency demands from banks and in the absence of claims approved purchase.
According to mister Stelmakhovich, in 2008 about 17,5 billion dollars were taken out with use of three main schemes. So, 2,7 billion dollars are transferred as calculation for import of goods/services without their import, and 4,6 billion dollars - return of portfolio investments (in particular, purchase of technical actions). The greatest volumes of currency - 9,8 billion dollars - redeemed banks in an open currency position and for "carrying out speculative operations".
The lion's share is bought in the IV quarter - 7,5 billion dollars. In 2007 it was illegally removed currencies one quarter less - 13,2 billion dollars and banks created currency positions of all on 6,5 billion dollars. In GNAU among the banks which were actively buying currency in 2008, called only Nadra bank.
Data of NBU on the trade income for the IV quarter which is formed first of all from exchange rate revaluation, showed that a top-5 enter "Prominvestbank" (870 million hryvnias), "An alpha - bank" (708 million hryvnias), "Ukrsotsbank" (646 million hryvnias), "OTR Bank" (640 million hryvnias) and "Nadra" (602 million hryvnias). "Many banks bought a lot of currency in a position that is visible by their trade result. Some banks earned large sums on currency revaluation", - the director of treasury of one of the largest credit institutions noted. Buying currency in a long position, banks created reserves under the currency credits, minimizing risks.
The vice-chairman of board of other largest bank added that, enlisting currency in the open position, some participants of the market had an opportunity to redeem the eurobonds with discount: "After decrease in ratings they went down in price, and it was favorable". I could fix similar operations GNAU as a capital conclusion, the banker assumed. "Since September many deputies started practicing a capital conclusion, and our VIP-clients began to assimilate of. Such operations also were compelled to take banks to themselves on a position", - the interlocutor of "Kommersant" noted. Sale by credit institutions of currency with an open length of a position became the reason of sharp falling of dollar on Wednesday, treasurers told. "Privatbank" and some more players gave the big offer and a course began to decrease", - told one of them.
According to Igor Stelmakhovich, in 2008 50 banks and their branches were involved in the first two schemes. "It is small banks at which isn't present neither deposit, nor credit history, there is no normal income and clients therefore they specialize on a currency conclusion", - he told. As specified a source of "Kommersant" in GNAU, these banks are registered to Kiev, the Dnepropetrovsk and Donetsk areas. Currency funds were transferred to Parex bank (Latvia), Ukio bank (Lithuania), "Aziyauniversalbank" (Kyrgyzstan) and a number of banks of Cyprus.
According to experts, during crisis circuit operations will become more active only. The analyst of IK Dragon Capital Elena Belan notes that now, by some expert estimates, the shadow economy occupies 30-50% of gross domestic product and can increase by 30%. "Leaving in a shadow - one of ways to minimize taxes, and now the companies use any opportunity to save", - she added.At the same time the president of Regional Share Union association Sergey Antonov considers that with activization of shadow business control will amplify also, in particular, from GKTsBFR behind sale of technical actions. It is possible to liquidate this scheme, only having determined the real price of paper at the exchange. "In Russia any calculations become attached to a market rate, and there this problem doesn't exist some years", - he emphasized.