"… The remote boundaries of east provinces continue to be kept by the few forces of cohorts of the I Italic, XI Klavdiyev and the V Macedon of legions. At the disposal of Lution's pretor Fabia Varrona there are four garrisons from 3000 legionaries.
The southern border of Dacia is removed for the river Istr on four day transitions and closely approached to lands of aggressive tribes. Soldiers from local barbarians are badly trained and don't know military discipline. The sprayed garrisons aren't able to resist to an aggressive impact … The senate should reconcile to Transnistriya's loss …".
Prokopy Kesariysky "Gothic wars"
- That's all. - Yakov Solomonovich Fidler closed the shabby university textbook and looked through points at the gendarme police officer. - Even Romans couldn't keep this barbarous province, and at you, the Romanian, the gut is thin...
- Who knows, as nobility. - The gendarme hard rose from a chair, slowly lit up a cigar. - Everything depends on Germans. The Wehrmacht will enter Moscow soon and will finally approve new geography of the world. Transnistriya becomes ours. In twenty years it will be finally Romanized. Lands will give to colonists, foreigners will move …
- In concentration camps?
- It is reality, Yakov. - The police officer closed a window and turned to the interlocutor. - All conquerors want to keep new territories. On suburbs law-abiding persons are necessary. Today you will remain in a justice, you will spend the night at me. Tomorrow, in seven mornings, the last audit in the village …
- Again round-up? ! In Varvarovke any more didn't remain Jews …
- Remained. To me informed that they hide behind an elevator.
Successors of the great empire
Dialogue of the gendarme police officer from Varvarovki Grigoriu Mutyane and the teacher of rural school Yakov Fidler - not art fiction of the author. It is taken from memoirs of the former gendarme which are published in the book: Alexander Dallin. Odessa, 1941-1944: A Case Study of Soviet Territory Under Foreign Rule translated into Russian in 2006. Curious history of a meeting of two messmates, graduates of faculty of natural sciences of the higher polytechnical school of of Timishoar.The former students met on the suburb of the occupied Nikolaev in Varvarovke.
Exactly here, through the western village fence of the village, in 1941 there passed border of a great Reich and Transnistriya's Romanian province. This province was formed according to German - the Romanian agreement signed in Bendery on August 30, 1941. Under the contract the territory between the Southern Bug and Dnestr, including parts of Vinnytsia, Odessa, Nikolaev areas of Ukraine and left-bank part of Moldova, passed under jurisdiction and management of Romania. Professor George Aleksyanu - in the past the teacher and the doctor of philosophy of the Bucharest university was appointed the governor of this enormous territory.
The new administrator quickly began to form a vertical of civil authorities of the acquaintances - the former Romanian teachers and students. Transnistriya was divided into 13 districts. It is known that the former graduate students professors Rudolf Saraskyanu and Modest Zarkul were pretors (heads of civil authorities) in Ochakov and Berezovsky districts. The gendarme police officer from Varvarovki Grigoriu Mutyane had in due time the status of the auditor of university and attended lectures professor Aleksyana. It lined the governor on adventure which helped to keep life to two tens varvarovskikh of Jews.
The matter is that the historical chronology of the Romanian nationalism is much more modest than its German analog. Germans pulled the ethnic family tree from ancient ариев, Romanians ranked themselves as descendants of legendary Roman legionaries who bore "light of a civilization to the dark barbarous world".
Transnistriya, according to the marshal Ion Antonesku, primordially Romanian earth. Here once there were Roman legions which protected eastern frontiers of the empire. According to its doctrine, borders of the Romanian power have to stretch far to the east. Odessa in the future became the capital of the vassal region.
The German nazis spent a lot of money and equipped expeditions to far Tibet to find the remains Aryan ойкумены. Romanians wanted to seize historical evidence of the ancient presence at Northern Black Sea Coast free of charge … in Nikolayevshchina.
Cemetery of a legion
The modest teacher of Varvarovsky school Yakov Fidler told the former messmate about the Roman era in Transnistriya. According to him, on this boundary province Romans constrained an impact of barbarous tribes small forces.The third cohort of the I Italic legion settled down in Olviya, the XI Klavdiyev's second cohort of a legion - in the Dash (modern Belgorod - Dniester) and two cohorts of the V Macedonian legion founded the camp around Small Korenikhi. Only 3000 soldiers defended the enormous territory from the Balkans to Priazovye.
- Billeting, billeting … Small Korenikh - same at us near by. - The police officer became agitated and pulled out still a cigar. - You can specify this place?
- Certainly, I can, in the spring I give there classes with pupils.
Grigoriu Mutyane phoned to the governor and received "good" on archeological excavations of the Roman camp near Small Korenikhi. It was necessary to take workers and urgently to start digging. However there were difficulties. Fidler flatly refused to work with the Romanian soldiers - as penalized persons. It laid down three conditions: food, regimentals and housing provide the Romanian authorities, expedition structure it forms and is responsible for processing and systematization of finds.
Every other day the list of members of expedition from twenty two surnames was submitted to the gendarme. Everything is varvarovsky Jews. All are already deported long ago in Golta's concentration camps, the Curve Lake and Domanevki. In the village didn't remain any Jewish family.
In sixty years Mutyane will remember that, how many it was required to him efforts to pull out all people from a ghetto. Four didn't manage to be taken away. They were already shot by then. Fidler had to add new surnames in the list. Archeologists got down to work on October 7, 1941.
Any written reports of this expedition us didn't reach. About its work we learn according to Grigoriu Mutyane. Expedition came across a defensive ditch and dug out the base of the western gate of the Roman camp. It isn't enough finds. The ceramics remains, calcaneal stones from wooden columns, bones of animals and some zernoterok.
The gendarme police officer is nervous. From Bucharest there arrived professor - the anthropologist that on human frames to draw a conclusion on an ethnic origin of the Roman legionaries to the Romanian ancestors - docks. And frames on - former aren't present.
The excavation protects office of the Romanian soldiers. All working day they are on duty on field perimeter. Jews don't hurry. They know that after expedition again will appear in camp. Work moves slowly …
There came winter. During a rain and slush it is impossible to dig. More than 200 square meters are opened already.The ornamented psaliya (part of a horse harness), metal facings of a board, the bronze earphone of a helmet are found. The died legionaries aren't present.
In the spring of 1942 Mutyane rolls up Fidlera a hysterics: "If till summer there are no results, all will go to camp". Threat worked. In June expedition gets over to the region of the Didovy Hut (modern turn of a highway on Radsad) and tries to find the Roman necropolis.
Yakov Solomonovich Fidler argued sensibly. If the V Macedonian legion was in Transnistriya 60 years, so it has to have the cemetery. Soldiers died in skirmishes, died of wounds and an old age. Average life expectancy of the Roman legionary - only 24 years.
Searches of a necropolis are tightened till fall. The gendarme police officer boils, but … waits for results. On November 23 found a spot of ancient burial, dug out a hole to the continent - empty burial. "Kenotaf, - Fidler explains to the classmate, - this legionary died in skirmish. His body couldn't bring to camp, but a ceremony of burial made. We on a right way …". Again winter, again expectation till spring.
May 24, 1943. Found! Found skeleton of the adult man, but … without skull. The dead man buried brainless. The accompanying funeral stock - bronze facings of a board and a sheath, in feet lies a ceramic flask of the legionary.
Bones gave to the anthropologist. The skull is necessary urgently to define an ethnic origin, and the skull isn't present. Works are continued in accelerated. Again fall and then early winter of 1943-1944. On December 11 in the morning guard watch didn't find expedition in country huts. At night all Jewish archeologists left towards to the coming nearer front. The racial theory of the Romanian nationalists lost material proofs.
The province - a chimera
Transnistriya - the first Roman province which the empire in the IV century AD gave without fight. Legionaries under the pressure of nomads orderly rose and left to defend Thrace which was gate on the Italic peninsula. The territory for Istr (Dnestr) existed as a part of the Roman state of only 70 years.
In the twentieth century Ion Antonesku tried to revive the state chimera. The result is sad: Transnistriya remained a bloody symbol of the Holocaust in memory of mankind. In 48 concentration camps and a ghetto 250 000 Jews were destroyed.The Romanian nazis only in Odessa burned alive 20 000 people. Alive Jews were burned in Beryozovka, by Bogdanovke, Dalnike and Golte. The Romanian Transnistriya - the homeland of a geographical toponym "Holocaust" (from the Greek holocaustos - burned entirely).
The Romanian armies didn't begin to defend the province. Unlike the Roman legions they randomly ran from the front to Ployeshti. In three months Romania will drop out of the war and will enter structure of the anti-Hitlerite coalition. Politicians will forget the nationalist nonsense and will stick to proclaim the country the right successor of the Roman Empire.
The idea of the province - a chimera will recover only with collapse of the USSR when the Moldavian nationalists will start supporting occurrence of Moldova as an autonomy to the Romanian republic. But it already other history.
about stories it is possible to read on a site the Chumatsky highway