The other day to Ukraine there will arrive the European commissioner for Agro-industrial complex (agrarian and industrial complex): will check this time the dairy enterprises. And if the last has the luck to pass this test, Europeans will have opportunity to try the Ukrainian dairy products, but as speak, "on one tooth". Domestic producers will be able to boast of the European status only: it won't be possible to occupy a serious niche in this market soon it.
To milk on - it is European
Last year the European Commission already checked the Ukrainian milk sellers, nevertheless, the result of checks was unsatisfactory: over 80 percent of milk available in Ukraine don't meet the European requirements as level of bacterial pollution in it exceeds norm in two, and even six times.
Such impression that prepare this time for "guests". And quite carefully: the service of the state supervision of Gospotrebstandart of Ukraine checked 937,8 tons of dairy products at the enterprises - producers and at the enterprises which specialize stored and wholesale realization of dairy products. A little less than 20 percent "milk" didn't meet the requirements.
Checked the condensed milk, butter, sour cream and other sour-milk production. Addition instead of milk fat vegetable, in particular, palm-oil appeared the most widespread. Besides, on packing producers called dairy the products made from dry skim milk, dry cream, lactoses, dry serum and water.
Nevertheless, the main problem in Gospotrebstandart called poor quality of raw materials, in particular milk. After all the most part it collect at the population where cows milk manually and often simply in the field. In Europe qualitative call only that milk which doesn't contact at all to people or air.Only this way it is possible to provide insignificant level of bacteria in a product. And that their quantity didn't increase during transportation, just collected milk needs to be cooled as soon as possible.
In Ukraine really there are farms which can deliver to producers high quality milk, nevertheless, quantity of really qualitative raw materials insufficiently to provide everyone. Producers will confess: the qualitative milk made on the European technologies should be diluted usual - that though as - that to come to necessary volumes.
The house - is twice cheaper
However even usual milk often doesn't suffice - from - for reductions of a livestock of cattle: in general in Ukraine last year the quantity of VRH decreased by 6,5 percent. So, in the agroenterprises from a last year's livestock in 670 thousand there were only 627 thousand. Not better a situation and "in the yards": from 2,4 million heads last year - in it there were about 2,3 million cows.
Quite so there is a deficiency. It is a lot of milk only in the summer when thanks to a natural pasture the quantity of milk yield considerably increases. Nevertheless, and problems here begin: cows milk a bit too much, it is impossible to buy everything at once. Besides, during a heat it is heavy to peasants to save collected milk from turning sour.
As a result - purchase price falls. And milk from the population is traditional cheaper, than collected at the enterprise: the price for liter differs almost twice. So, nowadays the base price for the population makes to 1,1 hryvnia. If to consider surcharges for protein content, the average price - about 1,3 hryvnia for liter. The average price for the enterprises - from 2,1 to 2,5 hryvnia."There is a region in the Nikolaev area where we pay already to 1,7 hryvnia - there such market situation, after all it isn't enough milk and if we lower the price, peasants will carry the milk to competitors", - told "MIND" the director general of JSC Dairy Alliance Sergey Vovchenko. In the price pererobshchik explain such difference not only that at farms big prime cost, but also that country milk needs to be pasteurized twice already, and before it mechanically to clear are additional expenses.
In the winter purchase prices above, nevertheless, volumes of milk fall. The majority of peasants - owners of VRH wants, that a cow телилась in the winter: then peasants not in the field also can look after a calf. Besides, by spring the calf will grow so independently to be grazed."Respectively in the winter the cow doesn't give milk two months, milk isn't present. And here from December to March - deficiency of milk. Whereas in agricultural enterprises in principle a seasonality question not such actual: there is a livestock specialist, the veterinarian, and the births of cows goes according to the schedule. Therefore cows give milk all year", - explainedVovchenko.
So that to collect milk suffices, the enterprises should deliver it from the next areas. "We take raw materials from everywhere where only it is possible. As usual, normal "shoulder" - in a radius of 100 kilometers from plant. Nevertheless, in Ukraine a situation with raw materials such that the territory needs to be broadened, so it is necessary to take milk for 320-350 kilometers. Besides, that is far, these are also additional expenses. But there is no other way out", - the pererobshchik told.
Molokovodstvo will revive in three years?
To solve a price and quality problem our members of the government tried more than once. So, the head of the government Yulia Timoshenko offered the option: to create agricultural cooperatives. Say, then people will unite and will sell milk at the fair price. Nevertheless, peasants don't hurry to unite, after all for cooperatives it is also necessary to buy and hold the corresponding cooling and cleaning equipment.
One more option - to integrate production that the dairy enterprises most created livestock farms and provided itself with necessary amount of milk. Nevertheless, milk sellers are skeptical about such offer also. "We had once 16 farms, and, fortunately, of them got rid - there were only losses", - SergeytoldVovchenko. By its calculations, today creation of one livestock complex which would develop about 100 tons of high-quality milk, will manage in 20 million dollars.
"To provide itself with milk, we need to build about 18 such complexes. We have no means necessary for this purpose, so to think of own production of milk rather early. I think, the molokovodstvo will revive in 3-6 years. And - in the form of powerful livestock farms which will actively introduce new technologies", - he added.
Very dangerous export
Nowadays the part of the Ukrainian dairy products conforms to requirements of the European market. "But on the European market it won't let until while the initial raw materials also won't conform to requirements of the European market", - are sure the general director of "Dairy alliance".
Now in Ukraine only 20 percent of milk conform to the European requirements. If its share manages to be increased by 10-15 percent, domestic producers will be able to come "to Europe" though won't win even one percent of the market.
Nevertheless, as shows experiment, it isn't necessary to hurry with export. Meanwhile the Ukrainian milk sellers export production mainly to Russia. However the enterprises which received a consent from the Russian Federation, are in direct dependence on good will of neighbors. "The consumption ratio, for example, cheeses in Russia and in Ukraine makes 60 on 40. These are very dangerous figures, as we in considerable dependence on Russia: after all any political divergences, any oversight over quality of production - and for us the border will be closed, there will be huge losses", - notesSergey Vovchenko.
However and completely producers don't plan to refuse export: if the government systematically at least returns quarterly the VAT, the credits won't be necessary for the enterprises. Thanks to it export will be much more favorable, than production on domestic market, experts note.